Al-Mu'tadid II
Al-Mu'tadid II (Arabic: المعتضد بالله‎) was an Abbasid Caliph of Cairo, Egypt for the Mamluk Sultans between 1414 and 1441.
Al-Mu'tadid II - Wikipedia
Al-Mutawakkil II
Al-Mutawakkil II (Arabic: المتوكل على الله‎) was an Abbasid Caliph of Cairo, Egypt for the Mamluk Sultans between 1479 and 1497.
Qara Iskander
Qara Iskander ibn Yusuf ruled the Kara Koyunlu or Black Sheep Turcoman tribe from 1420-1436. His struggles with the Timurid ruler Shah Rukh show that he was a brave leader, but he was not able to cont...
Al-Mustakfi II
Al-Mustakfi II (Arabic: المستكفي بالله‎) was an Abbasid Caliph of Cairo, Egypt for the Mamluk Sultans between 1441 and 1451.
Constantine XI Palaiologos
Constantine XI Palaiologos, Latinized as Palaeologus (Greek: Κωνσταντινος ΙΑ' Δραγάσης Παλαιολόγος, Kōnstantinos XI Dragasēs Palaiologos; 8 February 1405 – 29 May 1453) was the last reigning Byzan...
Constantine XI Palaiologos - Wikipedia
Manuel II Palaiologos
Manuel II Palaiologos or Palaeologus (Greek: Μανουήλ Β΄ Παλαιολόγος, Manouēl II Palaiologos) (27 June 1350 – 21 July 1425) was Byzantine Emperor from 1391 to 1425. Shortly before his death he was tons...
Manuel II Palaiologos - Wikipedia
Bayezid II
Bayezid II or Sultân Bayezid-î Velî (December 3, 1447 – May 26, 1512) (Ottoman Turkish: بايزيد ثانى Bāyezīd-i sānī, Turkish:II. Bayezid or II. Beyazıt) was the eldest son and successor of Mehmed ...
Bayezid II - Wikipedia
Al-Mustanjid (Cairo)
Al-Mustanjid (Arabic: المستنجد بالله‎) was an Abbasid caliph of Cairo, Egypt, for the Mamluk sultans between 1455 and 1479.
Mehmed I
Mehmed I Çelebi (Ottoman: چلبی محمد, Mehmed I or Mehmed Çelebi) (1381, Bursa – May 26, 1421, Edirne, Ottoman Empire) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire (Rûm) from 1413 to 1421. He was one of the s...
Mehmed I - Wikipedia
Al-Musta'in (Cairo)
Al-Musta'in Billah (Arabic: المستعين بالله‎) (c. 1390 – February or March 1430) was the tenth Abbasid "shadow" caliph of Cairo, reigning under the tutelage of the Mamluk sultans from 1406 to...
Hasan Ali (Kara Koyunlu)
Hasan 'Ali (died 1468) ibn Jahan Shah was the last ruler of the Kara Koyunlu Turkmen tribal federation, ruling for just one year from 1467–68, before the Kara Koyunlu were overrun by their enemies the...
Hasan Ali (Kara Koyunlu) - Wikipedia
Thomas Palaiologos
Thomas Palaiologos or Palaeologus (Greek: Θωμᾶς Παλαιολόγος Thomas Palaiologos; 1409 – 12 May 1465) was Despot in Morea from 1428 until the Ottoman conquest during 1460. After the desertion of his...
Thomas Palaiologos - Wikipedia
Andronikos V Palaiologos
Andronikos V Palaiologos (or Andronicus V Palaeologus) (Greek: Ανδρόνικος Ε' Παλαιολόγος) (c. 1400 – c. 1407) was co-emperor of the Byzantine Empire with his father John VII Palaiologos.
Andr...
Andronikos V Palaiologos - Wikipedia
Murad II
Murad II Kodja (June 1404, Amasya – 3 February 1451, Edirne) (Ottoman Turkish: مراد ثانى Murād-ı sānī, Turkish:II. Murat) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1421 to 1451 (except for a period f...
Murad II - Wikipedia
Mehmed the Conqueror
Mehmed II (Ottoman Turkish: محمد ثانى, Meḥmed-i s̠ānī; Turkish: II. Mehmet [ˈmeh.met]; also known as el-Fātiḥ, الفاتح, "the Conqueror" in Ottoman Turkish; in modern Turkish, Fatih Sultan Mehme...
Mehmed the Conqueror - Wikipedia
Qara Yusuf
Abu Nasr Qara Yusuf Nuyan (died 1420) was the ruler of the Kara Koyunlu (or "Black Sheep Turkomans") from c.1388 to 1420, although his reign was interrupted by Tamerlane's invasion (1400–1405). He was...
Ispend bin Yusuf
Ispend bin Yusuf was the son of Qara Yusuf and ruled over Baghdad and its environs for twelve years. Qara Yusuf's death in 1420 left his sons Ispend, Qara Iskander, Jahan Shah and Abu Sa’id bin Yusuf ...
Ispend bin Yusuf - Wikipedia
List of rulers of Kara Koyunlu
This is the list of rulers of Kara Koyunlu dynasty ("The Horde of the Black Sheep"). The dynasty ruled the territory now part of present-day Iran, Iraq, Azerbaijan and eastern Turkey. Their capital wa...
List of rulers of Kara Koyunlu - Wikipedia
Al-Mutawakkil I
Al-Mutawakkil I (Arabic: المتوكل على الله الأول‎) was an Abbasid Caliph of Cairo, Egypt for the Mamluk Sultans between 1362 and 1383, and then 1389 and 1406.
Al-Qa'im (Cairo)
Al-Qa'im (Arabic: القائم بأمر الله‎) was an Abbasid Caliph of Cairo, Egypt for the Mamluk Sultanate between 1451 and 1455. He was deposed by Sultan Sayf ad-Din Inal after al-Qa'im supported ...
Bayezid I
Bayezid I (Ottoman Turkish: بايزيد اول; Turkish: 1. Beyazıt; nicknamed Yıldırım (Ottoman Turkish: ییلدیرم), "The Lightning"; 1360 – 8 March 1403) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1389...
Bayezid I - Wikipedia
John VIII Palaiologos
John VIII Palaiologos or Palaeologus (Greek: Ίωάννης Η' Παλαιολόγος, Iōannēs Ē' Palaiologos; 18 December 1392 – 31 October 1448), was the penultimate reigning Byzantine Emperor, ruling ...
John VIII Palaiologos - Wikipedia
Jahan Shah
Muzaffar al-Din Jahan Shah ibn Yusuf (1397 Khoy— 1467 Tabriz) (Persian: جهان شاه‎; Azerbaijani: Cahan Şah/جهان شاه) was the leader of the Kara Koyunlu oghuz Turks tribal federation in Azerba...
Jahan Shah - Wikipedia
Al-Mustamsik
Al-Mustamsik (Arabic: المستمسك بالله‎) was an Abbasid caliph based in Cairo, Egypt under the tutelage of the Mamluk sultans. He served as caliph twice (1497–1508; 1516–1517).