Grimoald I of Benevento
Grimoald I (or Grimuald) (c. 610 – 671 CE) was duke of Benevento (647–662) and king of the Lombards (662–671).Grimoald was probably born before 610 to Duke Gisulf II of Friuli and the Bavarian princes...
Grimoald I of Benevento - Wikipedia
Ansfrid of Friuli
Ansfrid, Ansfrit, or Ausfrid was the Duke of Friuli in 694. He was originally the lord of the castle of Ragogna. In 694, he attacked Friuli and forced Duke Rodoald to flee to King Cunipert. Ansfrid th...
Papal selection before 1059
There was no fixed process for papal selection before 1059. Popes, the bishops of Rome and the leaders of the Catholic Church, were often appointed by their predecessors or secular rulers. While the p...
Papal selection before 1059 - Wikipedia
Pope Conon
Pope Conon (c. 630 – 21 September 687) was Pope from 21 October 686 to his death in 687. He had been put forward as a compromise candidate, there being a conflict between the two factions resident in ...
Pope Conon - Wikipedia
Pope Benedict II
Pope Benedict II (Latin: Benedictus II; 635 – 8 May 685) was Pope from 26 June 684 to his death in 685.He succeeded Leo II. Although chosen in 683, he was not ordained until 684 because the permis...
Pope Benedict II - Wikipedia
Romuald I of Benevento
Romuald I (also spelled Romoald and in Italian Romoaldo), duke of Benevento (662–687) was the son of Grimoald, king of the Lombards. When his father usurped the throne in 662, he left Benevento under ...
Perctarit
Perctarit (also Berthari) (died 688) was king of the Lombards from 661 to 662 the first time and later from 671 to 688. He was the son and successor of Aripert I. He shared power with his brother Go...
Aripert I
Aripert I (also spelled Aribert) was king of the Lombards (653–661) in Italy. He was the son of Gundoald, duke of Asti, who had crossed the Alps from Bavaria with his sister Theodelinda. As a relati...
Antipope Theodore
Theodore was a rival with Paschal for Pope following the death of Pope Conon (21 September 687), and thus is considered an antipope of the Roman Catholic Church.Prior to the disputed election, Theodor...
Pope Boniface IV
Pope Boniface IV (Latin: Bonifatius IV; c. 550 – 25 May 615) was Pope from 25 September 608 to his death in 615. He is venerated as a saint in the Catholic Church.
Son of Johannes, "a physicia...
Pope Boniface IV - Wikipedia
Tasso of Friuli
Tasso (or Taso) (died 617) was the joint Duke of Friuli with his younger brother Kakko from their father's death (611) to their own. Their father was Gisulf II. In or around 611, Gisulf was killed fen...
Pope Vitalian
Pope Vitalian (Latin: Vitalianus; died 27 January 672) reigned from 30 July 657 to his death in 672. He was born in Segni, Lazio, the son of Anastasius.
After the death of Pope Eugene I on 2 o...
Pope Vitalian - Wikipedia
Gisulf I of Benevento
Gisulf I (died 706) was the duke of Benevento from 689, when his brother Grimoald died. His father was Romuald I. His mother was Theodrada (or Theuderata), daughter of Lupus of Friuli, and she exercis...
Gisulf I of Benevento - Wikipedia
Callinicus (exarch)
Callinicus (or Kallinikos) (Καλλίνικος in Greek) was the exarch of Ravenna (597 – 602 or 603). He is called Gallicinus, or Gallicini patricii, by the Lombard historian Paul the Deacon (Latin t...
Callinicus (exarch) - Wikipedia
Arioald
Arioald was the Lombard king of Italy from 626 to 636. Duke of Turin, he married the princess Gundeberga, daughter of King Agilulf and his queen Theodelinda. He was, unlike his father-in-law, an Aria...
Arioald - Wikipedia
Pope Sabinian
Pope Sabinian (Latin: Sabinianus, died 22 February 606) was Pope from 13 September 604 to his death in 606. Pope during the Byzantine Papacy, he was fourth former apocrisiarius to Constantinople e...
Pope Sabinian - Wikipedia
Gaidoald
Gaidoald (Latin: Gaidoaldus) was the second Lombard Duke of Trent. He was assigned to Trent on the death of Euin in January 595. He was described by Paul the Deacon as "a good man and a Catholic i...
Theodore I Calliopas
Theodore Calliopas (Greek: Θεόδωρος Καλλιοπάς) was an Exarch of Ravenna twice (643–c. 645, 653–before 666).Nothing is known of Theodore's first term, except that he succeeded Isaac in 643 and was ...
Smaragdus
Smaragdus was Exarch of Ravenna twice, from 585 to 589 and from 603 to 611. During his first tenure, Smaragdus made an alliance with the Franks and Avars against the perennial foes of the Exarchate, t...
Smaragdus - Wikipedia
Radoald of Benevento
Radoald (also Raduald) (died 651) was the duke of Benevento (the southernmost Lombard duchy in medieval Italy) from 646 to his death in 651. His elder brother, Aiulf, was mentally unstable and Radoald...
Pope John IV
Pope John IV (Latin: Ioannes IV; died 12 October 642) reigned from 24 December 640 to his death in 642. His election followed a four-month sede vacante. He became the first of 11 Greek-speaking po...
Pope John IV - Wikipedia
Gisulf II of Friuli
Gisulf II was the Duke of Friuli from around 591 to his death. He was the son and successor of Gisulf I.Gisulf and Gaidoald of Trent were at odds with King Agilulf until they made peace in 602 or 603....
Alahis
Alahis (or Alagis) was the Arian duke of Trent and Brescia before becoming king of the Lombards after his successful rebellion in 688. He did not rule long, however. His first rebellion against King...
Olympius (exarch)
Olympius (died 652) was an Exarch of Ravenna (649–652). Prior to his term as exarch, Olympius was an imperial chamberlain at Constantinople.In 649, according to the Liber Pontificalis, the Byzantine E...
Pope Sergius I
Pope Sergius I (c. 650 – 8 September 701) was Pope from 15 December 687 to his death in 701. He was elected at a time when two rivals, the archdeacon Paschal and the archpriest Theodore, and their sup...
Pope Sergius I - Wikipedia
Rodoald
Rodoald (or Rodwald) was a Lombard king of Italy, who succeeded his father Rothari on the throne in 652. He was said to be lecherous and he was assassinated after a reign of just six months in 653 by ...
Rodoald - Wikipedia
Cunipert
Cunincpert (also Cunibert or Cunipert) was king of the Lombards from 688 to 700. He succeeded his father Perctarit, though he was associated with the throne from 680. Soon after his assumption of th...
Cunipert - Wikipedia
Paolo Lucio Anafesto
Paoluccio or Paolo Lucio Anafesto (Latin Anafestus Paulucius or Paulicius) was the reputed first doge of Venice. A noble of Eraclea, then the primary city of the region, he was elected in 697 as an of...
Paolo Lucio Anafesto - Wikipedia