Age of Reason
The Age of Enlightenment (or simply the Enlightenment, or Age of Reason) is an era from the 1650s to the 1780s in which cultural and intellectual forces in Western Europe emphasized reason, analysis, ...
Age of Reason - Wikipedia
Roanoke coffee shop goes viral with funny sign
ROANOKE, Va. Grandin Village is known in the Roanoke Valley for its funky vibe and local shops but now people around the world are learning it's a little dif...
Freemasons - Documentary 1/9
my point is all the time what we hear in the media( Islamic group is trying to bomb, American gov Invaded Iraq, Afghanistan, oil price is heading $4.00 per g...
Scottish Enlightenment
The Scottish Enlightenment (Scots: Scots Enlichtenment, Scottish Gaelic: Soilleireachadh na h-Alba) was the period in 18th century Scotland characterised by an outpouring of intellectual and s...
Scottish Enlightenment - Wikipedia
Russian Enlightenment
The national Enlightenment differed from its Western European counterpart in that it promoted further Modernization of all aspects of Russian life and was concerned with abolishing the institution of ...
Russian Enlightenment - Wikipedia
Enlightenment in Spain
Bourbon Spain is the period in the early modern History of Spain from the end of Habsburg rule and the ensuing War of the Spanish Succession over the ascension of a relation of Louis XIV of France to...
Enlightenment in Spain - Wikipedia
Enlightenment in Poland
The ideas of the Age of Enlightenment in Poland were developed later than in the Western Europe, as Polish bourgeoisie was weaker, and szlachta (nobility) culture (Sarmatism) together with the Polish-...
Enlightenment in Poland - Wikipedia
Republic of Letters
The Republic of Letters (Respublica literaria) is the long-distance intellectual community in the late 17th and 18th centuries in Europe and America. It fostered communication among the intellectuals...
Republic of Letters - Wikipedia
Coffeehouse
Coffeehouse and coffee shop are related terms for an establishment which primarily serves prepared coffee and other hot beverages. Café in continental Europe refers to a traditional type of coffeehous...
Coffeehouse - Wikipedia
English coffeehouses in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries
English coffeehouses, in the 17th and 18th centuries, were public social places where people would meet for conversation and commerce while drinking coffee. For the price of a penny, customers purchas...
English coffeehouses in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries - Wikipedia
London Debating Societies
Debating societies emerged in London in the early eighteenth century, and were a prominent feature of society until the end of the century. The origins of the debating societies are not certain, but b...
London Debating Societies - Wikipedia
Freemasons
Freemasonry is a fraternal organisation that traces its origins to the local fraternities of stonemasons, which from the end of the fourteenth century regulated the qualifications of masons and their ...
Freemasons - Wikipedia
Historiography of the Salon
The salons of Early Modern and Revolutionary France played an integral role in the cultural and intellectual development of France. The salons were seen by contemporary writers as a cultural hub, resp...
Historiography of the Salon - Wikipedia
Regular Masonic jurisdictions
Regularity is the process by which individual Grand Lodges recognise one another for the purposes of allowing formal interaction at the Grand Lodge level and visitation by members of other jurisdictio...
Regular Masonic jurisdictions - Wikipedia
Catholicism and Freemasonry
While many Christian denominations take no stance on Freemasonry, there are a several that are outwardly opposed to it, and either discourage or outright prohibit their members from joining the frater...
Suppression of Freemasonry
A number of governments have treated Freemasonry as a potential source of opposition due to its secret nature and international connections. After the founding of modern speculative Masonry in Englan...
Suppression of Freemasonry - Wikipedia
Neoclassical architecture in Poland
The Neoclassical architecture in Poland was centered in Warsaw under the reign of Stanisław August Poniatowski, while the modern concept of a single capital city was to some extent inapplicable in the...
Neoclassical architecture in Poland - Wikipedia
Grand Lodge
A Grand Lodge (or Grand Orient or other similar title) is the overarching governing body of a fraternal or other similarly organized group in a given area, usually a city, state, or country.
A Gra...
Masonic appendant bodies
There are many organisations and Orders which form part of the widespread fraternity of Freemasonry, each having its own structure and terminology. Collectively these may be referred to as Masonic bod...
Masonic appendant bodies - Wikipedia
War of the Spanish Succession
The War of the Spanish Succession (1701–1714) was a major European conflict of the early 18th century, triggered by the death in 1700 of the infirm and childless Charles II, the last Habsburg King of ...
War of the Spanish Succession - Wikipedia
Peninsular War
The Peninsular War (1807–1814) was a military conflict between the First French Empire and the allied powers of Spain, Britain and Portugal for control of the Iberian Peninsula during the Napoleonic W...
Peninsular War - Wikipedia
Anti-Masonry
Anti-Masonry (alternatively called Anti-Freemasonry) is defined as "avowed opposition to Freemasonry". However, there is no homogeneous anti-Masonic movement. Anti-Masonry consists of radically differ...
Anti-Masonry - Wikipedia
Mid-nineteenth century Spain
Spain in the 19th century was a country in turmoil. Occupied by Napoleon from 1808 to 1814, a massively destructive "war of independence" ensued, driven by an emergent Spanish nationalism. An era of r...
Mid-nineteenth century Spain - Wikipedia
Printing press
A printing press is a device for evenly printing ink onto a print medium (substrate) such as paper or cloth. The device applies pressure to a print medium that rests on an inked surface made of movabl...
Printing press - Wikipedia
Academy
An academy (Attic Greek: Ἀκαδήμεια; Koine Greek Ἀκαδημία) is an institution of secondary education or higher learning, research, or honorary membership.The name traces back to Plato's school of philos...
Academy - Wikipedia