Probability
Applied probability
Applied probability is the application of probability theory to other scientific and engineering domains.
Much research involving probability is done under the auspices of applied probability. How...
Games (probability)
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Risk
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Stochastic process
Four Climbers Dead On Everest, 'Mountain Of Extremes'
Four have died in the span of four days on Mount Everest, including a Sherpa and two Westerners. Two other climbers are missing.
Risk: Your Best Friend and Worst Enemy -- The Motley Fool
A few things you should know about it. Risk fills in the gaps between your plans and the relentless power of chance, accident, luck, and misinformation. It sits over your shoulder while you're plannin...
Games (probability)
Risk
Risk is the potential of losing something of value. Values (such as physical health, social status, emotional well being or financial wealth) can be gained or lost when taking risk resulting from a gi...
Stochastic process
In probability theory, a stochastic (/stoʊˈkæstɪk/) process, or sometimes random process (widely used) is a collection of random variables, representing the evolution of some system of random values o...
Stochastic process - Wikipedia
Lottery mathematics
Lottery mathematics is used here to mean the calculation of the probabilities in a lottery game. The lottery game used in the examples below is one in which one selects 6 numbers from 49, and hopes th...
Four Climbers Dead On Everest, 'Mountain Of Extremes'
Four have died in the span of four days on Mount Everest, including a Sherpa and two Westerners. Two other climbers are missing.
Independent component analysis
In signal processing, independent component analysis (ICA) is a computational method for separating a multivariate signal into additive subcomponents. This is done by assuming that the subcomponents a...
Coffin corner (aviation)
The coffin corner (or Q corner) is the altitude at or near which a fast fixed-wing aircraft's stall speed is equal to the critical Mach number, at a given gross weight and G-force loading. At this alt...
Coffin corner (aviation) - Wikipedia
Stopped process
In mathematics, a stopped process is a stochastic process that is forced to assume the same value after a prescribed (possibly random) time.
LetThen the stopped process is defined for and by
Self-sustainability
A system is self-sustaining (or self-sufficient) if it can maintain itself by independent effort. The system self-sustainability is:Self-sustainability is considered one of the "ilities" and is clo...
Coupon collector's problem (generating function approach)
Gambling and information theory
Statistical inference might be thought of as gambling theory applied to the world around. The myriad applications for logarithmic information measures tell us precisely how to take the best guess in ...
Gambling and information theory - Wikipedia
Circular error probable
In the military science of ballistics, circular error probable (CEP) (also circular error probability or circle of equal probability) is a measure of a weapon system's precision. It is defined as the ...
Circular error probable - Wikipedia
Banach's matchbox problem
Banach's match problem is a classic problem in probability attributed to Stefan Banach. Feller says that the problem was inspired by a humorous reference to Banach's smoking habit in a speech honouri...
High availability
High availability is a characteristic of a system. The definition of availability isAo = up time / total time.This equation is not practically useful, but if (total time - down time) is substituted f...
High availability - Wikipedia
Birthday attack
A birthday attack is a type of cryptographic attack that exploits the mathematics behind the birthday problem in probability theory. This attack can be used to abuse communication between two or more ...
Gambling mathematics
The mathematics of gambling are a collection of probability applications encountered in games of chance and can be included in game theory. From a mathematical point of view, the games of chance are e...
Fuzzy-trace theory
The fuzzy-trace theory (FTT) is a theory of cognition originally proposed by Charles J. Brainerd and Valerie F. Reyna that draws upon dual-trace conceptions to predict and explain cognitive phenomena,...
Empirical probability
The empirical probability, also known as relative frequency, or experimental probability, is the ratio of the number of outcomes in which a specified event occurs to the total number of trials, not in...
Air safety
Aviation safety is a term encompassing the theory, investigation, and categorization of flight failures, and the prevention of such failures through regulation, education, and training. It can also be...
Air safety - Wikipedia
Exponential mechanism (differential privacy)
The exponential mechanism is a technique for designing differentially private algorithms developed by Frank McSherry and Kunal Talwar. Differential privacy is a technique for releasing statistical inf...
Statistical interference
When two probability distributions overlap, statistical interference exists. Knowledge of the distributions can be used to determine the likelihood that one parameter exceeds another, and by how muc...
Statistical interference - Wikipedia
Buffon's needle
In mathematics, Buffon's needle problem is a question first posed in the 18th century by Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon:Buffon's needle was the earliest problem in geometric probability to be ...
Buffon's needle - Wikipedia
Availability
In reliability theory and reliability engineering, the term availability has the following meanings:For example, a unit that is capable of being used 100 hours per week (168 hours) would have an avail...
Amplitude-shift keying
Amplitude-shift keying (ASK) is a form of amplitude modulation that represents digital data as variations in the amplitude of a carrier wave.In an ASK system, the binary symbol 1 is represented by tra...
Amplitude-shift keying - Wikipedia
Miwin's dice
Miwin's Dice are a set of nontransitive dice invented in 1975 by the physicist Michael Winkelmann. They consist of three different dice with faces bearing numbers from 1 to 9; opposite faces sum to 9,...
Miwin's dice - Wikipedia
Fermi-Pasta-Ulam problem
In physics, the Fermi–Pasta–Ulam problem or FPU problem was the apparent paradox in chaos theory that many complicated enough physical systems exhibited almost exactly periodic behavior – called Fermi...
Kelly criterion
In probability theory and intertemporal portfolio choice, the Kelly criterion, Kelly strategy, Kelly formula, or Kelly bet, is a formula used to determine the optimal size of a series of bets. In most...
Clear-air turbulence
Clear-air turbulence (CAT) is the turbulent movement of air masses in the absence of any visual cues such as clouds, and is caused when bodies of air moving at widely different speeds meet.The atmosph...