Atomism
Atomism (from Greek ἄτομον, atomon, i.e. "uncuttable", "indivisible") is a natural philosophy that developed in several ancient traditions. The atomists theorized that nature consists of two fundament...
Nyaya
Nyāya (Sanskrit: न्याय, ny-āyá), literally means "rules", "method" or "judgment". It is also the name of one of the six orthodox (astika) schools of Hinduism. This school's most significant contributi...
Vaisesika
Vaisheshika or Vaiśeṣika (Sanskrit: वैशेषिक) is one of the six orthodox schools of Hinduism (Vedic systems) from ancient India. In its early stages, the Vaiśeṣika was an independent philosophy wit...
Buddhist atomism
Buddhist atomism is a school of atomistic Buddhist philosophy that flourished on the Indian subcontinent during two major periods. During the first phase, which began to develop prior to the 4th centu...
Jain cosmology
Jain cosmology is the description of the shape and functioning of the physical and metaphysical Universe (loka) and its constituents (such as living beings, matter, space, time etc.) according to Jain...
Jain cosmology - Wikipedia
Dravya (Jainism)
According to Jain cosmology, the universe is made up of six dravya (substances): sentient beings or souls (jīva), non-sentient substance or matter (pudgala), principle of motion (dharma), the principl...
Karma in Jainism
Karma is the basic principle within an overarching psycho-cosmology in Jainism. Human moral actions form the basis of the transmigration of the soul (jīva). The soul is constrained to a cycle of rebir...
Karma in Jainism - Wikipedia
Early Islamic philosophy
Early Islamic philosophy or classical Islamic philosophy is a period of intense philosophical development beginning in the 2nd century AH of the Islamic calendar (early 9th century CE) and lasting unt...
Early Islamic philosophy - Wikipedia
Alchemy and chemistry in medieval Islam
Alchemy and chemistry in Islam refers to the study of both traditional alchemy and early practical chemistry (the early chemical investigation of nature in general) by scholars in the medieval Islamic...
Ash'ari
Ash'arism or Ashʿari theology (/æʃəˈriː/; Arabic الأشعرية al-Asha`riyya or الأشاعرة al-Ashā`irah) is an early theological school of Islam (Sunni in particular) founded by Imam Abu al-Hasan al-Ash'ari ...
Ash'ari - Wikipedia
Averroism
Averroism is a school of Islamic philosophy that arose from the influence of the 12th century Al-Andalus Muslim philosopher Averroës, who worked on reconciling Aristotelianism with Islam. Alternativel...
Averroism - Wikipedia
Corpuscularianism
Corpuscularianism is a physical theory that supposed all matter to be composed of minute particles, which became important in the seventeenth century. Among the leading corpuscularians were Pierre Gas...
Atomic theory
In chemistry and physics, atomic theory is a scientific theory of the nature of matter, which states that matter is composed of discrete units called atoms. It began as a philosophical concept in anci...
Atomic theory - Wikipedia
Islamic science
Science in the medieval Islamic world (also known, less accurately, as Islamic science or Arabic science) is the science developed and practised in the medieval Islamic world during the Islamic Golden...
Islamic science - Wikipedia
Takwin
Takwin (Arabic: تكوين‎) was a goal of certain Muslim alchemists, notably Jabir ibn Hayyan. In the alchemical context, takwin refers to the creation of synthetic life in the laboratory, up to...
Types of Karma (Jainism)
According to Jain karma theory, there are eight main types of karma (Prikriti) which are categorized into the ‘harming’ and the ‘non-harming’; each divided into four types. The harming karmas (ghātiyā...
Types of Karma (Jainism) - Wikipedia
Atomic nucleus
The nucleus is the very dense region consisting of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom. It was discovered in 1911 as a result of Ernest Rutherford's interpretation of the 1909 Geiger–Marsden...
Atomic nucleus - Wikipedia
Salakapurusa
According to the Jain cosmology, Salakapurusas (illustrious or worthy persons), also known as trisastisalakapurusa (63 illustrious persons) are 63 illustrious beings who appear during each half-time c...
Salakapurusa - Wikipedia
Astronomy in medieval Islam
Islamic astronomy comprises the astronomical developments made in the Islamic world, particularly during the Islamic Golden Age (8th–15th centuries), and mostly written in the Arabic language. These d...
Astronomy in medieval Islam - Wikipedia
Lesya
Lesya, according to the Jain theory of karma, is the coloring of the soul on account its association with the karmic matter. The colour of leśyā varies from person to person depending on the psychic s...
Lesya - Wikipedia
Al-Farabi
Al-Farabi (/ˌælfəˈrɑːbi/; Persian: ابونصر محمد بن محمد فارابی‎ Abū Naṣr Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad Fārābī; for other recorded variants of his name see below) , known in the West as Alpharabius (c. 87...
Al-Farabi - Wikipedia
Kalam
ʿIlm al-Kalām (Arabic: علم الكلام‎, literally "science of discourse"), often foreshortened to kalām, is an Islamic science born out of the need to establish and defend the tenets of Islamic ...
Physics in medieval Islam
The natural sciences saw various advancements during the Golden Age of Islam (from roughly the mid 8th to the mid 13th centuries), adding a number of innovations to the Transmission of the Classics (s...
Islamic eschatology
Islamic eschatology is the branch of Islamic scholarship that studies Yawm al-Qiyāmah (pronounced yome-ul-key-ah-mah; Arabic: يوم القيامة‎ "the Day of Resurrection") or Yawm ad-Dīn (pronounc...
Atomic orbital
An atomic orbital is a mathematical function that describes the wave-like behavior of either one electron or a pair of electrons in an atom. This function can be used to calculate the probability of f...
Atomic orbital - Wikipedia
Ajiva
In Hinduism and Jainism, ajiva is anything that has no soul or life, the polar opposite of jiva. Because ajiva has no life, it does not accumulate karma and cannot die. Examples of ajiva include chai...
Naraka (Jainism)
Naraka नरक (Sanskrit) is the name given to the realm of existence in Jain cosmology characterized by great suffering. Naraka is usually translated into English as "hell" or "purgatory". However, Narak...
Naraka (Jainism) - Wikipedia
Turba Philosophorum
The Turba Philosophorum, also known as Assembly of the Philosophers, is one of the oldest European alchemy texts, translated from the Arabic, like the Picatrix. It is considered to have been written c...
Turba Philosophorum - Wikipedia
Avicennism
Avicenna (/ˌævəˈsɛnə/; Latinate form of Ibn-Sīnā (Persian: پور سینا / ابن سینا‎‍; Arabic: ابن سینا‎‍), full name Abū ʿAlī al-Ḥusayn ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn Al-Hasan ibn Ali ib...
Avicennism - Wikipedia
Book of Optics
The Book of Optics (Arabic: Kitāb al-Manāẓir‎ (كتاب المناظر); Latin: De Aspectibus or Perspectiva; Italian: Deli Aspecti) is a seven-volume treatise on optics and other fields of study compo...
Book of Optics - Wikipedia