Subjectivism
Subjectivism is the philosophical tenet that "our own mental activity is the only unquestionable fact of our experience". In other words, subjectivism is the doctrine that knowledge is merely subjecti...
Pirsig's metaphysics of Quality
The Metaphysics of Quality (MOQ) is a theory of reality introduced in Robert Pirsig's philosophical novel, Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance (1974) and expanded in Lila: An Inquiry into Morals...
Value (ethics)
In ethics, value denotes something's degree of importance, with the aim of determining what action of life is best to do or live (deontology), or to describe the significance of different actions (axi...
Theories of Surplus Value
Theories of surplus-value (German: Theorien über den Mehrwert) is a draft manuscript written by Karl Marx between January 1862 and July 1863. It is mainly concerned with the West European theorizi...
Theories of Surplus Value - Wikipedia
Paradox of value
The paradox of value (also known as the diamond–water paradox) is the apparent contradiction that, although water is on the whole more useful, in terms of survival, than diamonds, diamonds command a ...
Paradox of value - Wikipedia
Life stance
A person's life stance, or lifestance, is their relation with what they accept as being of ultimate importance. It involves the presuppositions and theories upon which such a stance could be made, a b...
Value theory
Value theory encompasses a range of approaches to understanding how, why, and to what degree persons value things; whether the object of valuing is a person, idea, object, or anything else. This inves...
Intrinsic theory of value
An intrinsic theory of value (also called theory of objective value) is any theory of value in economics which holds that the value of an object, good or service, is intrinsic or contained in the item...
Surplus value
Surplus value is a central concept in Karl Marx's critique of political economy. Marx did not himself invent the term, he developed the concept. "Surplus value" is a translation of the German word "M...
Surplus value - Wikipedia
Intrinsic value (ethics)
Intrinsic value is an ethical and philosophic property. It is the ethical or philosophic value that an object has "in itself" or "for its own sake", as an intrinsic property. An object with intrinsic ...
Marginalism
Marginalism is a theory of economics that attempts to explain the discrepancy in the value of goods and services by reference to their secondary, or marginal, utility. The reason why the price of diam...
Marginalism - Wikipedia
Labor theory of value
The labor theory of value (LTV) is a heterodox economic theory of value that argues that the economic value of a good or service is determined by the total amount of socially necessary labor required ...
Ethical subjectivism
Ethical subjectivism is the meta-ethical view which claims that:This makes ethical subjectivism a form of cognitivism. Ethical subjectivism stands in opposition to moral realism, which claims that mor...
Cost-of-production theory of value
In economics, the cost-of-production theory of value is the theory that the price of an object or condition is determined by the sum of the cost of the resources that went into making it. The cost can...
Theory of value (economics)
"Theory of value" is a generic term which encompasses all the theories within economics that attempt to explain the exchange value or price of goods and services. Key questions in economic theory incl...
Subjective theory of value
The subjective theory of value is a theory of value which advances the idea that the value of a good is not determined by any inherent property of the good, nor by the amount of labor required to prod...
Criticisms of the labour theory of value
Criticisms of the labor theory of value often arise from an economic criticism of Marxism.
Adherents of neoclassical economics, the currently predominant school, employ the theory of marginalism,...
Epistemological idealism
Epistemological idealism is a subjectivist position in epistemology that holds that what one knows about an object exists only in one's mind. It is opposed to epistemological realism.Epistemological i...
Calculation in kind
Calculation in kind or calculation in natura is a way of valuating resources and accounting based on disaggregated physical magnitudes, as opposed to a common unit of calculation. It was proposed to r...
Theory of imputation
In economics, the theory of imputation, first expounded by Carl Menger, maintains that factor prices are determined by output prices.This is the opposite of the labor theory of value maintained by cla...
Anthropological theories of value
Anthropological theories of value attempt to expand on the traditional theories of value used by economists or ethicists. They are often broader in scope than the theories of value of Adam Smith, Davi...
Value (personal and cultural)
A personal value is an individual's absolute or relative and ethical value, the assumption of which can be the basis for ethical action. A value system is a set of consistent values and measures. A p...
Value (personal and cultural) - Wikipedia
Pragmatism
Pragmatism is a philosophical tradition that began in the United States around 1870. Pragmatism is a rejection of the idea that the function of thought is to describe, represent, or mirror reality. In...
Pragmatism - Wikipedia
Ietsism
Ietsism (Dutch: ietsisme ([itsˈɪsmə]) – "somethingism") is an unspecified belief in an undetermined higher force. In some Eastern European censuses (Albanian, for example), those having iets...
Ethic value equality
In ethics, value denotes something's degree of importance, with the aim of determining what action of life is best to do or live (deontology), or to describe the significance of different actions (axi...
Value (economics)
Economic value is a measure of the benefit provided by a good or service to an economic agent. It is generally measured relative to units of currency, and the interpretation is therefore "what is the ...
Scarcity
Scarcity is the fundamental economic problem of having seemingly unlimited human wants in a world of limited resources. It states that society has insufficient productive resources to fulfill all huma...
Law of value
The law of value (German: Wertgesetz) is a central concept in Karl Marx's critique of political economy, first expounded in his polemic The Poverty of Philosophy (1847) against Pierre-Joseph Proudhon...
Instrumental value
Instrumental value (or extrinsic value, contributory value) is the value of objects, both physical objects and abstract objects, not as ends-in-themselves, but as means of achieving something else. I...