Belief revision
Belief revision is the process of changing beliefs to take into account a new piece of information. The logical formalization of belief revision is researched in philosophy, in databases, and in artif...
Cognitive inertia
Cognitive inertia refers to the tendency for beliefs or sets of beliefs to endure once formed. In particular, cognitive inertia describes the human inclination to rely on familiar assumptions and exhi...
Confirmation bias
Confirmation bias, also called myside bias, is the tendency to search for, interpret, or recall information in a way that confirms one's beliefs or hypotheses. It is a type of cognitive bias and a sys...
Confirmation bias - Wikipedia
St. Petersburg paradox
The St. Petersburg lottery or St. Petersburg paradox is a paradox related to probability and decision theory in economics. It is based on a particular (theoretical) lottery game that leads to a random...
Argumentum ad lapidem
Argumentum ad lapidem (Latin: "to the stone") is a logical fallacy that consists in dismissing a statement as absurd without giving proof of its absurdity. The form of argument employed by such dismis...
Argumentum ad lapidem - Wikipedia
Crank (person)
"Crank" is a pejorative term used for a person who holds an unshakable belief that most of his or her contemporaries consider to be false. A crank belief is so wildly at variance with those commonly h...
True-believer syndrome
True-believer syndrome is an informal or rhetorical term used by M. Lamar Keene in his 1976 book The Psychic Mafia. Keene used the term to refer to people who continued to believe in a paranormal even...
John Dewey
John Dewey, FAA (/ˈduːi/; October 20, 1859 – June 1, 1952) was an American philosopher, psychologist, leading activist in the Georgist movement, and educational reformer whose ideas have been influent...
John Dewey - Wikipedia
David Makinson
David Clement Makinson, D.Phil, (born 27 August 1941), is an Australian mathematical logician living in London, England.
Makinson began his studies at Sydney University in 1958 and was an associat...
Hierarchical temporal memory
Hierarchical temporal memory (HTM) is an online machine learning model developed by Jeff Hawkins and Dileep George of Numenta, Inc. that models some of the structural and algorithmic properties of the...
Hierarchical temporal memory - Wikipedia
Isaac Levi
Isaac Levi (born 30 June 1930), is an American philosopher. He is the John Dewey Professor of Philosophy Emeritus at Columbia University. Levi came onto the philosophic scene with his groundbreaking ...
Belief-Desire-Intention software model
The belief–desire–intention software model (usually referred to simply, but ambiguously, as BDI) is a software model developed for programming intelligent agents. Superficially characterized by the im...
Papez circuit
The Papez circuit (or medial limbic circuit), is a neural circuit for the control of emotional expression. In 1937, James Papez proposed that the circuit connecting the hypothalamus to the limbic lob...
Papez circuit - Wikipedia
Reason maintenance
Reason maintenance is a knowledge representation approach to efficient handling of inferred information that is explicitly stored. Reason maintenance distinguishes between base facts, which can be def...
William James
William James (January 11, 1842 – August 26, 1910) was an American philosopher and psychologist who was also trained as a physician. The first educator to offer a psychology course in the United State...
William James - Wikipedia
Pragmatic theory of truth
A pragmatic theory of truth is a theory of truth within the philosophies of pragmatism and pragmaticism. Pragmatic theories of truth were first posited by Charles Sanders Peirce, William James, and Jo...
Semmelweis reflex
The Semmelweis reflex or "Semmelweis effect" is a metaphor for the reflex-like tendency to reject new evidence or new knowledge because it contradicts established norms, beliefs or paradigms.The term ...
Doxastic logic
Doxastic logic is a modal logic concerned with reasoning about beliefs. The term doxastic derives from the ancient Greek δόξα, doxa, which means "belief." Typically, a doxastic logic uses 'Bx' to mean...
Galileo affair
The Galileo affair (Italian: Processo a Galileo Galilei) was a sequence of events, beginning around 1610, culminating with the trial and condemnation of Galileo Galilei by the Roman Catholic Inqui...
Galileo affair - Wikipedia
Conservatism (belief revision)
In cognitive psychology and decision science, conservatism or conservatism bias is a bias in human information processing. This bias describes human belief revision in which persons over-weigh the pri...
Place cell
A place cell is a type of pyramidal neuron within the hippocampus that becomes active when the animal enters a particular place in the environment; this place is known as the place field. A given plac...
Place cell - Wikipedia
Memory-prediction framework
The memory-prediction framework is a theory of brain function created by Jeff Hawkins and described in his 2004 book On Intelligence. This theory concerns the role of the mammalian neocortex and its a...
Experimenter's bias
In experimental science, experimenter's bias, also known as research bias, is a subjective bias towards a result expected by the human experimenter. For example, it occurs when scientists unconsciousl...
Planck's principle
In sociology of scientific knowledge, Planck's principle is the view that scientific change does not occur because individual scientists change their mind, but rather that successive generations of sc...
Abductive reasoning
Abductive reasoning (also called abduction, abductive inference or retroduction) is a form of logical inference that goes from an observation to a hypothesis that accounts for the observation, ideally...
Computational epistemology
Computational epistemology is a subdiscipline of formal epistemology that studies the intrinsic complexity of inductive problems for ideal and computationally bounded agents. In short, computational e...
Von Neumann-Morgenstern utility theorem
In 1947, John von Neumann and Oskar Morgenstern proved that any individual whose preferences satisfied four axioms has a utility function; such an individual's preferences can be represented on an i...
Counterfactual conditional
A counterfactual conditional abbreviated CF, is a subjunctive conditional containing an if-clause which is contrary to fact.
The difference between indicative and counterfactual conditionals, in a...
Non-monotonic logic
A non-monotonic logic is a formal logic whose consequence relation is not monotonic. In other words, non-monotonic logics are devised to capture and represent defeasible inferences (c.f.defeasible rea...
Paraconsistent logic
A paraconsistent logic is a logical system that attempts to deal with contradictions in a discriminating way. Alternatively, paraconsistent logic is the subfield of logic that is concerned with studyi...