Heruli
The Heruli (spelled variously in Latin and Greek) were an East Germanic tribe who migrated from Scandinavia to the Black Sea in the third century AD. They were part of the series of raids and incursio...
Heruli - Wikipedia
Varangian Guard
The Varangian Guard (Greek: Τάγμα των Βαράγγων, Tágma tōn Varángōn) was an elite unit of the Byzantine Army, from the 10th to the 14th centuries, whose members served as personal bodyguards to the Byz...
Varangian Guard - Wikipedia
Varangians
The Varangians or Varyags (Old Norse: Væringjar; Greek: Βάραγγοι, Βαριάγοι, Varangoi, Variagoi) was the name given by Greeks and East Slavs to Vikings, who between the 9th and 11th centuries ruled...
Varangians - Wikipedia
Momchil
Momchil (Bulgarian: Момчил, Greek: Μομ[ι]τζίλος or Μομιτζίλας; c. 1305 – 7 July 1345) was a 14th-century Bulgarian brigand and local ruler. Initially a member of a bandit gang in the bord...
Momchil - Wikipedia
Roger de Flor
Roger de Flor (1267 – 30 April 1305), also known as Ruggero/Ruggiero da Fiore or Rutger von Blum or Ruggero Flores, was an Italian military adventurer and condottiere active in Aragonese Sicily...
Caspian expeditions of the Rus'
The Caspian expeditions of the Rus' were military raids undertaken by the Rus' between 864 and 1041 on the Caspian Sea shores. Initially, the Rus' appeared in Serkland in the 9th century traveling as ...
Caspian expeditions of the Rus' - Wikipedia
Battle of Halmyros
The Battle of Halmyros, known by older scholars as the Battle of the Cephissus or Battle of Orchomenos, was fought on 15 March 1311 between the forces of the Frankish Duchy of Athens and its vassals u...
Akolouthos
Akolouthos (Greek: ἀκόλουθος, "follower, attendant") was a Byzantine office with varying functions over time. Originally a subaltern officer of the imperial guard regiment (tagma) of the Vigla, it...
Runic inscriptions in Hagia Sophia
There are at least two runic inscriptions in Hagia Sophia's marble parapets. They may have been engraved by members of the Varangian Guard in Constantinople in the Viking Age.
The first runic insc...
Runic inscriptions in Hagia Sophia - Wikipedia
Roussel de Bailleul
Roussel de Bailleul (also ) (died 1077), also known as Phrangopoulos (literally "son-of-a-Frank"), was a Norman adventurer (or exile) who travelled to Byzantium and there received employ as a soldier ...
Awake iron!
Awake iron! (Catalan: Desperta Ferro!, [dəsˈpɛrtə ˈfɛru]; Medieval Catalan: Desperta Ferres!) was a battle cry of the Middle Ages employed by the Almogavars. It was shouted on entering the fight,...
Awake iron! - Wikipedia
Harald Hardrada
Harald Sigurdsson (Old Norse: Haraldr Sigurðarson; c. 1015 – 25 September 1066), given the epithet Hardrada (harðráði, roughly translated as "stern counsel" or "hard ruler") in the sagas, was Ki...
Harald Hardrada - Wikipedia
Heruli (military unit)
The Heruli was an auxilia palatina unit of the Late Roman army, active between the 4th and the 5th century. It was composed of 500 soldiers and was the heir of those ethnic groups that were initially ...
Heruli (military unit) - Wikipedia
Ingvar runestones
Clickable map of the geographic distribution of the Ingvar Runestones in southern Sweden (modern administrative borders and cities are shown)T...
Ingvar runestones - Wikipedia
Pharas the Herulian
Pharas the Herulian (also known as "Varus") was a sixth-century commander of Herulian forces loyal to Byzantium, who figures briefly in Procopius’ narrative of Justinian's wars. Gibbon notes, in his H...
Bolli Bollason
Bolli Bollason (also Bolli Bollison) was a key historical character in the Medieval Icelandic Laxdæla saga, born around 1000. He grew up in Orlygsstadir, at Helgafell on the Snæfellsnes Peninsula in I...
Bolli Bollason - Wikipedia
Šimon
Šimon (Old Norse: Sigmundr) was a Varangian (Viking) whose story is related in the Kievan Patericon and his story concerns the creation of the Kievan cave monastery, where he is reported to have been ...
Yakun
Yakun or Jakun, deriving from Old Norse Hákon, was a Varangian (Viking) leader who is mentioned in the Primary Chronicle and in the Cave monastery in Kiev. The chronicle tells that he arrived in Kieva...
Yakun - Wikipedia
Greece Runestones
Clickable map of the geographic distribution of the Greece runestones in southern Sweden (modern administrative borders and cities are...
Greece Runestones - Wikipedia
Robert Crispin
Robert Crispin (French: Crépin, died 1071), called Frankopoulos, was a Norman mercenary and the leader of a corps of his countrymen stationed at Edessa under the command of the Byzantine general I...
Hervé Frankopoulos
Hervé (Greek: Ἑρβέβιος, Ervevios, Italian: Erveo), called Frankopoulos or Phrangopoulos (Greek: Φραγγόπουλος, "Son of the Frank"), was a Norman mercenary general in Byzantine service durin...
Ingvar Runestones
Clickable map of the geographic distribution of the Ingvar Runestones in southern Sweden (modern administrative borders and cities are shown)T...
Ingvar Runestones - Wikipedia
Optimatoi
The Optimatoi (Greek: Ὀπτιμάτοι, from Latin: Optimates, "the Best Men") were initially formed as an elite Byzantine military unit. In the mid-8th century, however, they were downgraded to a su...
Berezan' Runestone
The Berezan' Runestone (X UaFv1914;47) was discovered in 1905 by Ernst von Stern, professor at Odessa, on Berezan' Island (also known as the Island of St Aitherios) where the Dnieper River meets the B...
Berezan' Runestone - Wikipedia
Roger Deslaur
Roger Deslaur or Desllor, an almogàver from Roussillon in the service of Walter V of Brienne, Duke of Athens, was one of the few knights to survive the bloody Battle of Halmyros on 15 March 1311. Capt...
Piraeus Lion
The Piraeus Lion is one of four lion statues on display at the Venetian Arsenal, where it was displayed as a symbol of Venice's patron saint, Saint Mark.
It was originally located in Piraeus, the ...
Piraeus Lion - Wikipedia
Catalan Company
The Catalan Company of the East (Catalan: Companyia Catalana d'Orient, [kumpəˈɲi.ə kətəˈɫanə ðuɾiˈen]), officially the Magna Societas Catalanorum, sometimes called the Grand Company and widely kno...
Catalan Company - Wikipedia
Almogavars
Almogavars (Spanish: almogávares, Aragonese: almogávars, Catalan: almogàvers and Portuguese: almogávares) is the name of a class of soldier from many Christian Iberian kingdoms in the ...
Almogavars - Wikipedia
Ragnvald Ingvarsson
Ragnvaldr was a captain of the Varangian Guard in the first half of the 11th century. He may appear on several runestones, some of which suggest that he was the son of an Ingvar connecting him to the ...