Caliph
A caliphate (Arabic: خِلافة‎ khilāfa) is a form of Islamic government led by a caliph (Arabic: خَليفة‎ khalīfah  pronunciation )—a person considered a political and relig...
Caliph - Wikipedia
'Priceless' trove of 2,000 gold coins is found off the coast of Israel 
The largest treasure trove ever discovered off Israel's Mediterranean coast has been uncovered by scuba divers who won't get a penny.
Suleiman the Magnificent
In the 16th Century an Ottoman Sultan known as the second Solomon ruled half the civilized world. He was known as Süleyman the Magnificent. During his 46-yea...
Umayyad Caliphate
The Umayyad Caliphate (Arabic: الخلافة الأموية‎, trans. Al-Ḫilāfat al-ʾumawiyya) was the second of the four major Islamic caliphates established after the death of Muhammad. This ca...
Umayyad Caliphate - Wikipedia
Abbasid Caliphate
The Abbasid Caliphate (Arabic: الخلافة العباسية‎ al-Khilāfah al-‘Abbāsīyah), was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad. The Abbasid dynasty descended fr...
Fatimid Caliphate
The Fatimid Caliphate (Arabic: الفاطميون‎, al-Fāṭimīyūn) was a Shia Islamic caliphate, which spanned a large area of North Africa, from the Red Sea in the east to the Atlantic Ocean...
Fatimid Caliphate - Wikipedia
Ottoman Caliphate
The Ottoman Caliphate, under the Ottoman dynasty of the Ottoman Empire, was the last Sunni Islamic caliphate of the late medieval and the early modern era. During the period of Ottoman growth, Ottoman...
Ottoman Caliphate - Wikipedia
Rashidun
The Rashidun Caliphs (meaning "Rightly Guided", "Righteously Guided", "Righteous" Caliphs; Arabic: الخلفاء الراشدون‎ al-Khulafāʾu ar-Rāshidūn), often simply called, collectively, "the Rashi...
Rashidun - Wikipedia
List of sultans of the Ottoman Empire
The sultans of the Ottoman Empire (Turkish: Osmanlı padişahları), made up solely of the members of the Ottoman dynasty (House of Osman), ruled over the transcontinental empire from its inception ...
List of sultans of the Ottoman Empire - Wikipedia
Abd al-Rahman I
Abd al-Rahman I, or, his full name by patronymic record, Abd al-Rahman ibn Mu'awiya ibn Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan (731–788) was the founder of a Muslim dynasty that ruled the greater part of ...
Abd al-Rahman I - Wikipedia