Certainty
Certainty is perfect knowledge that has total security from error, or the mental state of being without doubt.Objectively defined, certainty is total continuity and validity of all foundational inquir...
How Funny Is This Word? The 'Snunkoople' Effect
How do you quantify something as complex and personal as humour? University of Alberta researchers have developed a mathematical method of doing just that—and it might not be quite as personal as we t...
THE CITY OF MAHASIDDHAS | LEVEKUNST art of life
The city of Gorakhpur in India keeps a secret from ancient times, a temple with 84 statues of outstanding beauty and mystic significance. Each one different yet impeccably dressed in siddha garments a...
Ethical Trials, Targeted Ads
New method optimizes outcomes for subjects in comparison tests. Clinical trials of new drugs or devices face a problem that most empirical inquiries don’t: They must not only provide clear data about ...
You Are a Rainbow - Seven Levels of Intelligence
Epistemology, the study of knowing how we know, is fundamental to focused intelligence. Howard Gardner of Harvard University, and author of Frames of Mind, identifies multiple levels of intelligence: ...
Truth
Truth is most often used to mean being in accord with fact or reality, or fidelity to an original or to a standard or ideal.The commonly understood opposite of truth is falsehood, which, corresponding...
Truth - Wikipedia
Uncertainty
Uncertainty is a term used in subtly different ways in a number of fields, including philosophy, physics, statistics, economics, finance, insurance, psychology, sociology, engineering, and information...
Uncertainty - Wikipedia
Agnosticism
Agnosticism is the view that the truth values of certain claims – especially metaphysical and religious claims such as whether or not God, the divine or the supernatural exist – are unknown ...
Agnosticism - Wikipedia
Belief
There is no way to speak generally about belief. One such attempt at speaking generally states that belief is a mental representation of a sentient being's attitude toward the likelihood or truth of ...
Doubt
Doubt, a status between belief and disbelief, involves uncertainty or distrust or lack of sureness of an alleged fact, an action, a motive, or a decision. Doubt brings into question some notion of a ...
Doubt - Wikipedia
Determinism
Determinism is the philosophical position that for every event, including human action, there exist conditions that could cause no other event. "There are many determinisms, depending upon what pre-co...
Determinism - Wikipedia
Epistemology
Epistemology (/ɨˌpɪstɨˈmɒlədʒi/; from Greek ἐπιστήμη, epistēmē, meaning "knowledge, understanding", and λόγος, logos, meaning "study of") is the branch of philosophy concerned with t...
Approximation
An approximation is anything that is similar but not exactly equal to something else. The term can be applied to various properties (e.g. value, quantity, image, description) that are nearly but not e...
Approximation - Wikipedia
Fallibilism
Fallibilism (from Medieval Latin: fallibilis, "liable to err") is the philosophical principle that human beings could be wrong about their beliefs, expectations, or their understanding of the world, a...
Fatalism
Fatalism is a philosophical doctrine stressing the subjugation of all events or actions to fate.Fatalism generally refers to any of the following ideas:
Ājīvika (also written Ajivika or Ajivaka, l...
Theory of justification
Theory of justification is a part of epistemology that attempts to understand the justification of propositions and beliefs. Epistemologists are concerned with various epistemic features of belief, wh...
Nihilism
Nihilism (/ˈnaɪ.ɨlɪzəm/ or /ˈniː.ɨlɪzəm/; from the Latin nihil, nothing) is a philosophical doctrine that suggests the negation of one or more reputedly meaningful aspects of life. The Greek philosoph...
Nihilism - Wikipedia
Probability
Probability is the measure of the likeliness that an event will occur. Probability is quantified as a number between 0 and 1 (where 0 indicates impossibility and 1 indicates certainty). The higher the...
Skepticism
Skepticism or scepticism (see spelling differences) is generally any questioning attitude towards knowledge, facts, or opinions/beliefs stated as facts, or doubt regarding claims that are taken for gr...
Solipsism
Solipsism (/ˈsɒlɨpsɪzəm/; from Latin solus, meaning "alone", and ipse, meaning "self") is the philosophical idea that only one's own mind is sure to exist. As an epistemological posi...
True-believer syndrome
True-believer syndrome is an informal or rhetorical term used by M. Lamar Keene in his 1976 book The Psychic Mafia. Keene used the term to refer to people who continued to believe in a paranormal even...
Itō's lemma
In mathematics, Itō's lemma is an identity used in Itō calculus to find the differential of a time-dependent function of a stochastic process. It serves as the stochastic calculus counterpart of the c...
How Funny Is This Word? The 'Snunkoople' Effect
How do you quantify something as complex and personal as humour? University of Alberta researchers have developed a mathematical method of doing just that—and it might not be quite as personal as we t...
THE CITY OF MAHASIDDHAS | LEVEKUNST art of life
The city of Gorakhpur in India keeps a secret from ancient times, a temple with 84 statues of outstanding beauty and mystic significance. Each one different yet impeccably dressed in siddha garments a...
You Are a Rainbow - Seven Levels of Intelligence
Epistemology, the study of knowing how we know, is fundamental to focused intelligence. Howard Gardner of Harvard University, and author of Frames of Mind, identifies multiple levels of intelligence: ...
Gordon-Newell theorem
In queueing theory, a discipline within the mathematical theory of probability, the Gordon–Newell theorem is an extension of Jackson's theorem from open queueing networks to closed queueing networks o...