Chile-Peru relations
Chilean-Peruvian relations refers to the historical and current bilateral relationship between the Republic of Chile and the Republic of Peru.Peru and Chile share a long history of international diplo...
Chile-Peru relations - Wikipedia
Viceroyalty of Peru
The Viceroyalty of Peru (Spanish: Virreinato del Perú) was a Spanish colonial administrative district, created in 1542, that originally contained most of Spanish-ruled South America, governed from...
Viceroyalty of Peru - Wikipedia
Spanish American wars of independence
The Spanish American wars of independence were the numerous wars against Spanish rule in Spanish America that took place during the early 19th century, after the French invasion of Spain during Europe...
Spanish American wars of independence - Wikipedia
Bolivian War of Independence
The Bolivian war of independence began in 1809 with the establishment of government juntas in Sucre and La Paz, after the Chuquisaca Revolution and La Paz revolution. These Juntas were defeated shortl...
Bolivian War of Independence - Wikipedia
Peru-Bolivian Confederation
The Peru–Bolivian Confederation (or Confederacy) was a short-lived confederate state that existed in South America between 1836 and 1839. Its first and only head of state, titled “Supreme Protector”, ...
Peru-Bolivian Confederation - Wikipedia
Chincha Islands War
The Chincha Islands War (Spanish: Guerra hispano-sudamericana) was a series of coastal and naval battles between Spain and its former colonies of Peru and Chile from 1864 to 1866. The conflict beg...
Chincha Islands War - Wikipedia
War of the Pacific
The War of the Pacific (Spanish: Guerra del Pacífico) (1879–1883) was fought in western South America, between Chile and allied Bolivia and Peru in a variety of terrain, including the Pacific Ocea...
War of the Pacific - Wikipedia
Cenepa War
The Cenepa War (January 26 – February 28, 1995), also known as the Alto Cenepa War, was a brief and localized military conflict between Ecuador and Peru, fought over control of an area in Peruvian ter...
Cenepa War - Wikipedia
Crossing of the Andes
The Crossing of the Andes was one of the most important feats in the Argentine and Chilean wars of independence, in which a combined army of Argentine soldiers and Chilean exiles invaded Chile leadi...
Crossing of the Andes - Wikipedia
Patria Boba
The period between 1810 and 1816 in the Viceroyalty of New Granada (today Colombia) was marked by such intense conflicts over the nature of the new government or governments that it became known as la...
Luz de América
The Ecuadorian War of Independence was fought from 1820 to 1822 between several South American armies and Spain over control of the lands of the Royal Audience of Quito, a Spanish colonial administrat...
Luz de América - Wikipedia
Chuquisaca Revolution
The Chuquisaca Revolution was a popular uprising on 25 May 1809 against the governor and intendant of Chuquisaca (today Sucre), Ramón García León de Pizarro. The Real Audiencia of Charcas, with suppor...
Chuquisaca Revolution - Wikipedia
Bourbon Reforms
The Bourbon Reforms (in Spanish: Reformas Borbónicas) were a set of economic and political legislation introduced by the Spanish Crown under various kings of the House of Bourbon throughout the 18th c...
José de San Martín
José Francisco de San Martín (25 February 1778 – 17 August 1850), known simply as José de San Martín ([xoˈse ðe san marˈtin]), was an Argentine general and the prime leader of the southern part o...
José de San Martín - Wikipedia
Toledo Reforms
The Toledo Reforms were a series of reforms implemented by Francisco Álvarez de Toledo to Spain's policies in the Viceroyalty of Peru.The years 1533-1569 were considered the years of crisis and turmoi...
List of Peruvian Navy ships
List of ships of the Peruvian Navy comprising almost every Peruvian warship commissioned after 1840.
President Castilla sought to expand and well-equip the Peruvian Navy. His naval policy was to i...
List of Peruvian Navy ships - Wikipedia
Reconquista (Spanish America)
In colonial Spanish America, the Reconquista refers to the period following the defeat of Napoleon in 1814 during which royalist armies were able to gain the upper hand in the Spanish American wars of...
Reconquista (Spanish America) - Wikipedia
Battle of Papudo
The Naval Battle of Papudo was a naval engagement fought between Spanish and Chilean forces on November 26, 1865, during the Chincha Islands War. It was fought 55 miles north of Valparaiso, Chile, nea...
Battle of Papudo - Wikipedia
First Republic of Venezuela
The First Republic of Venezuela (Primera República de Venezuela in Spanish) was the first independent government of Venezuela, lasting from 19 April 1810, to 25 July 1812. The period of the First Repu...
First Republic of Venezuela - Wikipedia
Antonio José de Sucre
Antonio José de Sucre y Alcalá ([anˈtonjo xoˈse ðe ˈsukɾe j alkaˈla]; 1795–1830), known as the "Gran Mariscal de Ayacucho" (English: "Grand Marshal of Ayacucho"), was a Venezuelan independence lea...
Antonio José de Sucre - Wikipedia
Retroversion of the sovereignty to the people
The Retroversion of the sovereignty to the people, which challenged the legitimacy of the colonial authorities, was the principle underlying the Spanish American Independence processes. Thus, in both ...
Retroversion of the sovereignty to the people - Wikipedia
First Mexican Empire
The Mexican Empire (Spanish: Imperio Mexicano) was the first independent post-colonial state in Mexico. It was the only former colony of the Spanish Empire to establish a monarchy after independen...
Foreign relations of Peru
Peru has been a member of the United Nations since 1949, and Peruvian Javier Pérez de Cuéllar served as UN Secretary General from 1981 to 1991. Former President Fujimori’s tainted re-election to a thi...
Military career of Simón Bolívar
The military and political career of Simón Bolívar, (July 24, 1783 – December 17, 1830), which included both formal service in the armies of various revolutionary regimes and actions organized b...
Military career of Simón Bolívar - Wikipedia
La Paz revolution
The city of La Paz (modern Bolivia, then part of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata) experimented a revolution in 1809 that deposed Spanish authorities and declared independence. It is considered ...
La Paz revolution - Wikipedia
Cuzco School
The Cuzco School (Escuela Cuzqueña) was a Roman Catholic artistic tradition based in Cusco, Peru (the former capital of the Inca Empire) during the Colonial period, in the 16th, 17th and 18th centurie...
Cuzco School - Wikipedia
José María Morelos
José María Teclo Morelos y Pavón  xoˈse maˈɾi.a ˈteklo moˈɾelos i paˈβon (September 30, 1765, City of Valladolid, now Morelia, Michoacán – December 22, 1815, San Cristóbal Ecatepec, S...
José María Morelos - Wikipedia
Battle of Abtao
The Naval Battle of Abtao took place on February 7, 1866, between a Spanish naval squadron and a combined Peruvian-Chilean fleet, at the island of Abtao in the Gulf of Ancud near Chiloé Archipelago in...
Battle of Abtao - Wikipedia
Federal Republic of Central America
The Federal Republic of Central America (Spanish: República Federal de Centro América), also called United Provinces of Central America in its first year of creation, was a sovereign state in Cent...
Federal Republic of Central America - Wikipedia
1811 Independence Movement
The 1811 Independence Movement known in El Salvador as the Primer grito de independencia (First Shout of Independence) was the first of a series of revolts in Central America in El Salvador against Sp...
1811 Independence Movement - Wikipedia