Chloroplast
Chloroplasts /ˈklɔrəplæsts/ are organelles, specialized subunits, in plant and algal cells. Their main role is to conduct photosynthesis, where the photosynthetic pigment chlorophyll captures the ener...
Chloroplast - Wikipedia
How a single-celled organism almost wiped out life on Earth
There’s an organism that changed the world. It caused the first mass extinction in Earth’s history … and also paved the way for complex life. How?
Chloroplast membrane
Chloroplasts contain several important membranes, vital for their function. Like mitochondria, chloroplasts have a double-membrane envelope, called the chloroplast envelope, but unlike mitochondria, ...
Chemiosmosis
Chemiosmosis is the movement of ions across a selectively permeable membrane, down their electrochemical gradient. More specifically, it relates to the generation of ATP by the movement of hydrogen io...
Chemiosmosis - Wikipedia
Calvin cycle
The light-independent reactions of photosynthesis are chemical reactions that convert carbon dioxide and other compounds into glucose. These reactions occur in the stroma, the fluid-filled area of a c...
Cyanobacteria
Cyanobacteria /saɪˌænoʊbækˈtɪəriə/, also known as Cyanophyta, is a phylum of bacteria that obtain their energy through photosynthesis. The name "cyanobacteria" comes from the color of the bacteria (Gr...
Cyanobacteria - Wikipedia
Apratoxin A
Apratoxin A - is a cyanobacterial secondary metabolite, known as a potent cytotoxic marine natural product. It is a derivative of the Apratoxin family of cytotoxins. The mixed peptide-polyketide nat...
Apratoxin A - Wikipedia
Phototrophic biofilms
Phototrophic biofilms occur on contact surfaces in a range of terrestrial and aquatic environments. Phototrophic biofilms can best be described as surface attached microbial communities (see also Biof...
Phototrophic biofilms - Wikipedia
Cyanotoxin
Cyanotoxins are toxins produced by bacteria called cyanobacteria (also known as blue-green algae). Cyanobacteria are found almost everywhere, but particularly in lakes and in the ocean where, under ce...
Cyanotoxin - Wikipedia
Microcystis
Microcystis is a microcystin-producing genus of freshwater cyanobacteria which includes the harmful algal bloom Microcystis aeruginosa. Cyanobacteria produce two groups of toxin, neurotoxins and pepti...
Anabaena circinalis
Anabaena circinalis is a species of Gram-negative, photosynthetic cyanobacteria common to freshwater environments throughout the world. Much of the scientific interest in A. circinalis owes to its p...
Anabaena circinalis - Wikipedia
Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii
Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii is a freshwater cyanobacterium.
This bacterium is an aquatic photosynthetic bacteria belonging to the phylum Cyanobacteria. They are composed of chained filaments kn...
Nostoc punctiforme
Nostoc punctiforme is a species of filamentous cyanobacteria. Under non-limiting nutritional environmental conditions, its filaments are composed of photosynthetic vegetative cells; upon nutrient limi...
Saxitoxin
Saxitoxin (STX) is the best-known paralytic shellfish toxin (PST), although other related compounds have been reported, such as neosaxitoxin (NSTX), the 11-alpha and 11-beta-O-sulphates of saxitoxin an...
Saxitoxin - Wikipedia
Aplysiatoxin
Aplysiatoxin is a cyanotoxin produced by certain cyanobacteria species. It is used as a defensive secretion to protect these cyanobacteria from predation by fish, being a potent irritant and carcinoge...
Aplysiatoxin - Wikipedia
Cyanobacterium UCYN-A
Candidatus Atelocyanobacterium thalassa, previously cyanobacterium UCYN-A, is a species of non-photosynthetic nitrogen-fixing marine cyanobacteria that lacks the oxygen-producing photosystem II comple...
Nostoc commune var. sphaeroides
Nostoc commune var. sphaeroides is an edible cyanobacterium found in diverse habitats such as lakes and rivers. It is used as a food and nutritional supplement and has reputed pharmaceutical properti...
Radaisia
Radaisia is a genus of coccoid cyanobacterium comprising about 10 identified species. It is a colonial cyanobacterium, the bacteria initially forming a round to irregularly shaped flat group of gelati...
Microcystaceae
Microcystaceae is family of cyanobacterial life which contains the harmful algal bloom Microcystis aeruginosa.
The family is characterized by single, floating cells or colonies which are embedded ...
Stigonematales
The Stigonematales are the order of cyanobacteria that includes filamentous strains that produce hormogonia and exhibit true branching. Under the more recent classification system devised by Rippka et...
Phycoerythrin
Phycoerythrin (PE) is a red protein-pigment complex from the light-harvesting phycobiliprotein family, present in red algae and cryptophytes, accessory to the main chlorophyll pigments responsible for...
Phycoerythrin - Wikipedia
Prochloron
Prochloron (from the Greek pro (before) and the Greek chloros (green) ) is a unicellular oxygenic photosynthetic prokaryote commonly found as an extracellular symbiont on coral reefs, particularly in ...
Synechococcus
Synechococcus (from the Greek synechos (in succession) and the Greek kokkos (granule) is a unicellular cyanobacterium that is very widespread in the marine environment. Its size varies from 0.8 µ...
Synechococcus - Wikipedia
Fat choy
Fat choy (Nostoc flagelliforme), also known as faat choy, fa cai, black moss, hair moss or hair weed is a terrestrial cyanobacterium (a type of photosynthetic bacteria) that is used as a vegetable in ...
Fat choy - Wikipedia
Girvanella
Girvanella is thought to represent the calcified sheath of a filamentous cyanobacterium known from the Burgess Shale and other Cambrian fossil deposits.
Beta-Methylamino-L-alanine
β-Methylamino--alanine, or BMAA, is a non-proteinogenic amino acid produced by cyanobacteria.
BMAA consists of an alpha carbon with a carboxyl and amino group with a methyl amino side chain. This...
Beta-Methylamino-L-alanine - Wikipedia
Microcystin
Microcystins (also known as cyanoginosins) are a class of toxins produced by certain freshwater cyanobacteria; primarily Microcystis aeruginosa but also other Microcystis, as well as members of the Pl...
Microcystin - Wikipedia
Oscillaria
Oscillaria is a genus of filamentous cyanobacterium.
Lyngbya
Lyngbya is a genus of cyanobacteria, unicellular autotrophs that form the basis of the oceanic food chain.Lyngbya form long, unbranching filaments inside a rigid mucilage sheath. Sheaths may form tang...
Lyngbya - Wikipedia
Synechocystis
Synechocystis is a genus of cyanobacteria primarily represented by the strain Synechocystis sp. PCC6803. S. sp. PCC6803 lives in freshwater and is capable of both phototrophic growth by oxygenic phot...