Christianity in the 13th century
The Eastern Roman (Byzantine) imperial church headed by Constantinople continued to assert its universal authority. By the 13th century this assertion was becoming increasingly irrelevant as the Easte...
Christianity in the 13th century - Wikipedia
Medieval history of Christianity
The history of Christianity during the Middle Ages is the history of Christianity between the Fall of Rome (c. 476) and the onset of the Protestant Reformation during the early 16th century, the...
Medieval history of Christianity - Wikipedia
Christianity in the 12th century
Christianity in the 12th century was marked by a continuation of the Crusades, namely with the Second Crusade in the Holy Land.
The English dispute was resolved by the Concordat of London, 1107, w...
Christianity in the 12th century - Wikipedia
Christianity in the 14th century
Christianity in the 14th century consisted of an end to the Crusades and a precursor to Protestantism.
King Philip IV of France created an inquisition for his suppression of the Knights Templar du...
Christianity in the 14th century - Wikipedia
Scholasticism
Scholasticism is a method of critical thought which dominated teaching by the academics ("scholastics," or "schoolmen") of medieval universities in Europe from about 1100 to 1700, and a program of emp...
Scholasticism - Wikipedia
Fourth Crusade
The Fourth Crusade (1202–04) was a Western European expedition which was originally intended to conquer Muslim-controlled Jerusalem by means of an invasion through Egypt. However in January 1203, en r...
Fourth Crusade - Wikipedia
Swedish-Novgorodian Wars
Swedish–Novgorodian Wars were a series of conflicts in the 12th and 13th centuries between the Republic of Novgorod and medieval Sweden over control of the Gulf of Finland, an area vital to the Hanse...
Swedish-Novgorodian Wars - Wikipedia
Children's Crusade
The Children's Crusade is the name given to a disastrous Crusade by European Christians to expel Muslims from the Holy Land said to have taken place in 1212. The traditional narrative is probably co...
Children's Crusade - Wikipedia
Fifth Crusade
The Fifth Crusade (1213–1221) was an attempt by Catholic Europeans to reacquire Jerusalem and the rest of the Holy Land by first conquering the powerful Ayyubid state in Egypt.Pope Innocent III...
Fifth Crusade - Wikipedia
Sixth Crusade
The Sixth Crusade started in 1228 as an attempt to regain Jerusalem. It began seven years after the failure of the Fifth Crusade. It involved very little actual fighting. The diplomatic maneuvering of...
Sixth Crusade - Wikipedia
Seventh Crusade
The Seventh Crusade was a crusade led by Louis IX of France from 1248 to 1254. Approximately 800,000 bezants were paid in ransom for King Louis who, along with thousands of his troops, were defeated a...
Seventh Crusade - Wikipedia
Eighth Crusade
The Eighth Crusade was a crusade launched by Louis IX, King of France, in 1270. The Eighth Crusade is sometimes counted as the Seventh, if the Fifth and Sixth Crusades of Frederick II are counted as a...
Eighth Crusade - Wikipedia
Ninth Crusade
The Ninth Crusade, which is sometimes grouped with the Eighth Crusade, is commonly considered to be the last major medieval Cru...
Ninth Crusade - Wikipedia
Ilkhanate
The Ilkhanate, also spelled Il-khanate (Persian: ایلخانان‎, Ilkhanan; Mongolian: Хүлэгийн улс, Hulagu-yn Ulus), was a breakaway state of the Mongol Empire, which was ruled by the Mongol...
Ilkhanate - Wikipedia
Golden Horde
The Golden Horde (Mongolian: Алтан Орд, Altan Ordu, Зүчийн улс, Züchii-in Uls; Russian: Золотая Орда, Zolotaya Orda; Tatar: Алтын Урда Altın Urda) was a Mongol and later Turkicized k...
Golden Horde - Wikipedia
Tatar invasions
The Mongol invasion of Europe from the east took place over the course of three centuries, from the Middle Ages to the early modern period.The terms Tatars or Tartars are applied to nomadic Turkic peo...
Tatar invasions - Wikipedia
Siege of Zara
The Siege of Zadar or Siege of Zara (Croatian: Opsada Zadra; November 10–24, 1202) was the first major action of the Fourth Crusade and the first attack against a Catholic city by Catholic crusade...
Siege of Zara - Wikipedia
Boniface I, Marquess of Montferrat
Boniface I, usually known as Boniface of Montferrat (Italian: Bonifacio del Monferrato; Greek: Βονιφάτιος Μομφερρατικός, Vonifatios Momferratikos) (c. 1150 – 4 September 1207) was Marquess of ...
Boniface I, Marquess of Montferrat - Wikipedia
Avignon Papacy
The Avignon Papacy was the period from 1309 to 1377, during which seven successive popes resided in Avignon, in France, rather than in Rome. This situation arose from the conflict between the Papacy a...
Avignon Papacy - Wikipedia
Kublai Khan
Kublai Khan (/ˈkuːblaɪ ˈkɑːn/; Mongolian: Хубилай хаан, ᠬᠦᠪᠢᠯᠠᠢ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ Xubilaĭ xaan; Middle Mongolian: Qubilai Qaγan, "King Qubilai"; September 23, 1215 – February 18, 1294), born Kublai (...
Kublai Khan - Wikipedia
Partitio terrarum imperii Romaniae
The Partitio terrarum imperii Romaniae (Latin for "partition of the lands of the empire of Romania [Byzantine Empire]) was a treaty signed amongst the crusaders after the sack of the Byzantine capital...
Hesychasm
Hesychasm (Greek: ἡσυχασμός, hesychasmos, from ἡσυχία, hesychia, "stillness, rest, quiet, silence") is a mystical tradition of prayer in the Eastern Orthodox Church and Eastern Catholic Churches o...
Mongol Empire
The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: Mongolyn Ezent Güren  listen ; Mongolian Cyrillic: Монголын эзэнт гүрэн; also Орда ("Horde") in Russian chronicles), which existed during the 13th and ...
Mongol Empire - Wikipedia
Northern Crusades
The Northern Crusades or Baltic Crusades were crusades undertaken by the Christian kings of Denmark, Poland and Sweden, the German Livonian and Teutonic military orders, and their allies against the p...
Northern Crusades - Wikipedia
Investiture Controversy
The Investiture Controversy or Investiture Contest was the most significant conflict between Church and state in medieval Europe. In the 11th and 12th centuries, a series of popes challenged the aut...
Christianity in the 8th century
Christianity in the 8th century was much affected by the rise of Islam in the Middle East. By the late 8th century, the Muslim empire had conquered all of Persia and parts of the Eastern Roman (Byza...
Christianity in the 8th century - Wikipedia
Christianity in the 6th century
In 6th century Christianity, Roman Emperor Justinian launched a military campaign in Constantinople to reclaim the western provinces from the Arian Germans, starting with North Africa and proceeding...
Christianity in the 6th century - Wikipedia
History of modern Christianity
The history of modern Christianity concerns the Christian religion from the end of the Early Modern era to the present day. The Early Modern history of Christianity is usually taken to begin with the ...
History of modern Christianity - Wikipedia
First Swedish Crusade
The First Swedish Crusade was a possibly mythical military expedition around 1150 that has traditionally been seen as the conquest of Finland by Sweden, with pagan Finns converting to Christianity. Ac...
Siege of Constantinople (1203)
The Siege of Constantinople in 1203 was a Crusader siege of the capital of the Byzantine Empire, in support of the deposed emperor Isaac II Angelos and his son Alexios IV Angelos. It marked the main o...