Ad Apostolicae Dignitatis Apicem
Ad Apostolicae Dignitatis Apicem was an apostolic letter issued against Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II by Pope Innocent IV (1243-54), during the Council of Lyon, 17 July 1245, the third year of his p...
Hermann Balk
Hermann Balk (? - died March 5, 1239, Würzburg), also known as Hermann von Balk or Hermann Balke, was a Knight-Brother of the Teutonic Order and its first Landmeister, or Provincial Master, in both Pr...
Hermann Balk - Wikipedia
Rudolph I of Germany
Rudolf I, also known as Rudolf of Habsburg (German: Rudolf von Habsburg, Czech: Rudolf Habsburský; (1218-05-01)1 May 1218 – 15 July 1291(1291-07-15)) was Count of Habsburg from about 1240 and ...
Rudolph I of Germany - Wikipedia
Pope Gregory IX
Pope Gregory IX (Latin: Gregorius IX; c. 1145 – 22 August 1241), born Ugolino di Conti, was Pope from 19 March 1227 to his death in 1241. He is known for instituting the Papal Inquisition, a mecha...
Pope Gregory IX - Wikipedia
Peter of Dusburg
Peter of Dusburg (German: Peter von Dusburg; Latin: Petrus de Dusburg; died after 1326), also known as Peter of Duisburg, was a Priest-Brother and chronicler of the Teutonic Knights. He is kno...
Peter of Dusburg - Wikipedia
Christian of Oliva
Christian of Oliva (Polish: Christian z Oliwy), also Christian of Prussia (German: Christian von Preußen) (died 4 December(?) 1245) was the first missionary bishop of Prussia. Christian was bo...
Christian of Oliva - Wikipedia
Nikolaus von Jeroschin
Nikolaus von Jeroschin (ca. 1290-1341) was a 14th-century German chronicler of the Teutonic Knights in Prussia.Nikolaus joined the Teutonic Order as a chaplain of the Grand Masters of the Teutonic Kni...
Engelbert I, Count of the Mark
Engelbert I, Count of the Mark (died 16 November 1277 at Castle of Bredevoort) was a German nobleman. He was the ruling Count of the Mark from 1249 until his death.
He succeeded his father, Adolf...
Engelbert I, Count of the Mark - Wikipedia
Mindaugas
Mindaugas (ca. 1203 – fall 1263) was the first known Grand Duke of Lithuania and the only King of Lithuania. Little is known of his origins, early life, or rise to power; he is mentioned in a 1219 tre...
Mindaugas - Wikipedia
Leszek II the Black
Leszek II the Black (Polish: Leszek Czarny; c. 1241 – 30 September 1288), was a Polish prince member of the House of Piast, Duke of Sieradz since 1261, Duke of Łęczyca since 1267, Duke of Inowrocł...
Leszek II the Black - Wikipedia
Pope Alexander IV
Pope Alexander IV (1199 or ca. 1185 – 25 May 1261) was Pope from 12 December 1254 to his death in 1261.Born as Rinaldo di Jenne in Jenne (now in the Province of Rome), he was, on his mother's side, a ...
Pope Alexander IV - Wikipedia
Poppo von Osterna
The grand master (German: Hochmeister; Latin: Magister generalis) is the holder of the supreme office of the Teutonic Order. It is equivalent to the grand master of other military orders and t...
Poppo von Osterna - Wikipedia
Hermann von Salza
Hermann von Salza (or Hermann of Salza) (c. 1165 – March 20, 1239) was the fourth Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights, serving from 1210 to 1239. A skilled diplomat with ties to the Holy Roman Empero...
Hermann von Salza - Wikipedia
Henry of Sandomierz
Henry of Sandomierz (or Henry of Sandomir) (Polish: Henryk Sandomierski) (ca. 1131 – 18 October 1166) was a Duke of Sandomierz since 1138 (titulary) or 1146 (formally) until his death.He was the f...
Papal election, 1243
The papal election of 15–25 June 1243 elected Pope Innocent IV to succeed Pope Celestine IV, after the Holy See had been vacant for 18 months.
Papal election, 1243 - Wikipedia
Pope Gregory IX and Judaism
The relations between Pope Gregory IX and Judaism were comparatively good for a medieval Pope, since Gregory acted as a political protector to persecuted Jewish communities. However, he also enacted c...
Pope Innocent IV
Pope Innocent IV (Latin: Innocentius IV; c. 1195 – 7 December 1254), born Sinibaldo Fieschi, was Pope from 25 June 1243 to his death in 1254.
Born in Genoa (although some sources say Manarola)...
Pope Innocent IV - Wikipedia
William I of Guelders and Jülich
William I of Guelders and Jülich KG (5 March 1364 – 16 February 1402, Arnhem) was Duke of Guelders, as William I, from 1377 and Duke of Jülich, as William III, from 1393. William was known for ...
William I of Guelders and Jülich - Wikipedia
Battle of Legnica
The Battle of Legnica (Polish: bitwa pod Legnicą), also known as the Battle of Liegnitz (German: Schlacht von Liegnitz) or Battle of Wahlstatt (German: Schlacht bei Wahlstatt), was a battl...
Battle of Legnica - Wikipedia
Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor
Frederick II (26 December 1194 – 13 December 1250), was one of the most powerful Holy Roman Emperors of the Middle Ages and head of the House of Hohenstaufen. His political and cultural ambitions, ba...
Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor - Wikipedia
Hartmann von Heldrungen
Hartmann von Heldrungen (died 19 August 1282) was the 11th Grand Master of the Teutonic Order, serving from 1273 to 1282.Von Heldrungen was an Imperial Knight from Thuringia in the Holy Roman Empire....
Konrad I of Masovia
Konrad I of Masovia (Polish: Konrad I Mazowiecki) (ca. 1187/88 – 31 August 1247), from the Polish Piast dynasty, was the sixth Duke of Masovia from 1194 until his death as well as High Duke of Pol...
Konrad I of Masovia - Wikipedia
Otto I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg
Otto I of Brunswick-Lüneburg (about 1204 – 9 June 1252), a member of the House of Welf, was the first duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg from 1235 until his death. He is called Otto the Child to disting...
Otto I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg - Wikipedia
Henry II the Pious
Henry II the Pious (Polish: Henryk II Pobożny) (ca. 1196/1207 – 9 April 1241), of the Silesian line of the Piast dynasty was Duke of Silesia at Wrocław and Duke of Kraków and thus High Duke of all...
Henry II the Pious - Wikipedia
Ottokar II of Bohemia
Ottokar II (Czech: Přemysl Otakar II; c. 1233 – 26 August 1278), the Iron and Golden King, was a member of the Přemyslid dynasty who reigned as King of Bohemia from 1253 until 1278. He also h...
Ottokar II of Bohemia - Wikipedia
Pope Honorius III
Pope Honorius III (1150 – 18 March 1227), born as Cencio Savelli, was Pope from 18 July 1216 to his death in 1227.
He was born in Rome as son of Aimerico to the Roman Savelli family.For a time he ...
Pope Honorius III - Wikipedia
Albert I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg
Albert the Tall (Latin: Albertus Longus, German: Albrecht der Große; 1236 – 15 August 1279), a member of the House of Welf, was Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg from 1252 and the first ruler of the ...
Albert I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg - Wikipedia
William of Modena
William of Modena (c. 1184 – 31 March 1251), also known as William of Sabina, Guglielmo de Chartreaux, Guglielmo de Savoy, Guillelmus, was an Italian clergyman and papal diplomat. He was frequently ap...
William of Modena - Wikipedia