Cologne War
The Cologne War (1583–88) devastated the Electorate of Cologne, a historical ecclesiastical principality of the Holy Roman Empire, within present-day North-Rhine-Westphalia, in Germany. The war occurr...
Cologne War - Wikipedia
On October 24th 1648, The Treaty Of Westphalia Was Signed, Marking The End Of The Thirty Years War.
The Westphalia area of north-western Germany gave its name to the treaty that ended the Thirty Years War, one of the most destructive conflicts in the history of Europe. The war or series of connected...
Protestant Reformation
The Protestant Reformation - Part 1.
Protestantism
The Protestant Reformation - Part 1.
Protestant Reformation
The Protestant Reformation, often referred to simply as the Reformation, was the schism within Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther, John Calvin, Huldrych Zwingli and other early Protestant...
Protestant Reformation - Wikipedia
Peace of Augsburg
The Peace of Augsburg, also called the Augsburg Settlement, was a treaty between Charles V and the forces of the Schmalkaldic League, an alliance of Lutheran princes, on September 25, 1555, at the imp...
Peace of Augsburg - Wikipedia
Dutch Revolt
The Dutch Revolt (1566 or 1568–1648) was the successful revolt of the northern, largely Protestant Seven Provinces of the Low Countries against the rule of the Roman Catholic King Philip II of Spain,...
Dutch Revolt - Wikipedia
Battle of Werl (1586)
The Battle of Werl occurred between 3–8 March 1586, during a month-long campaign in the Duchy of Westphalia by mercenaries fighting for the Protestant (Calvinist) Archbishop-Prince Elector ...
Battle of Werl (1586) - Wikipedia
Eighty Years' War
The Eighty Years' War, or Dutch War of Independence (1568–1648), began as a revolt of the Seventeen Provinces against the political and religious hegemony of Philip II of Spain, the sovereign of the H...
Eighty Years' War - Wikipedia
Destruction of Neuss (July 1586)
6°41′38″E / 51.20028°N 6.69389°E / 51.20028; 6.69389The Destruction of Neuss occurred in July 1586, during the Cologne War. Alexander Farnese, Duke of Parma's troops surrounde...
Destruction of Neuss (July 1586) - Wikipedia
Counter-Reformation
The Counter-Reformation (also the Catholic Revival or Catholic Reformation) was the period of Catholic revival beginning with the Council of Trent (1545–1563) and ending at the close of the Thirty Yea...
Counter-Reformation - Wikipedia
James Croft
Sir James Croft PC (c.1518–4 September 1590) was an English politician, who was Lord Deputy of Ireland, and MP for Herefordshire in the Parliament of England.
He was born the second but eldest sur...
On October 24th 1648, The Treaty Of Westphalia Was Signed, Marking The End Of The Thirty Years War.
The Westphalia area of north-western Germany gave its name to the treaty that ended the Thirty Years War, one of the most destructive conflicts in the history of Europe. The war or series of connected...
On the Freedom of a Christian
On the Freedom of a Christian, sometimes also called "A Treatise on Christian Liberty" (German: "Von der Freiheit eines Christenmenschen") (November 1520), was the third of Martin Luther’s major refor...
Beeldenstorm
Beeldenstorm in Dutch, roughly translatable to "statue storm", or Bildersturm in German ("image/statue storm"), also the Iconoclastic Fury, is a term used for outbreaks of destruction of religious ima...
Beeldenstorm - Wikipedia
Pope Sixtus V
Pope Sixtus V or Xystus V (13 December 1521 – 27 August 1590), born Felice Peretti di Montalto, was Pope from 24 April 1585 to his death in 1590. To date, he is the last pontiff to take the pontifical...
Pope Sixtus V - Wikipedia
Spirituali
The Spirituali were members of a reform movementwithin the Roman Catholic Church, which existed from the 1510s to the 1560s. The ranks of the Spirituali included Cardinal Gasparo Contarini (1483–1542)...
Nicholas de la Fontaine
Nicholas de la Fontaine was a Protestant refugee in Geneva and entered the service of John Calvin, by whom he was employed a secretary. De la Fontaine brought Michael Servetus to trial on August 14, ...
The Pilgrim's Tale
The Pilgrim's Tale is an English anti-monastic poem. It was probably written ca. 1536–38, since it makes references to events in 1534 and 1536 – i.e., the Lincolnshire Rebellion – and borrows from The...
Bastion of Truth Reformed Churches in the Philippines
The Bastion of Truth Reformed Churches in the Philippines is a denomination of Christian churches all located in Southern Luzon, the Philippines.
Representatives from three former Pentecostal-Char...
Martin Bucer
Martin Bucer (early German: Martin Butzer) (11 November 1491 – 28 February 1551) was a Protestant reformer based in Strasbourg who influenced Lutheran, Calvinist, and Anglican doctrines and p...
Martin Bucer - Wikipedia
Calvinism
Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice of...
Calvinism - Wikipedia
Johannes Bugenhagen
Johannes Bugenhagen (24 June 1485 – 20 April 1558), also called Doctor Pomeranus by Martin Luther, introduced the Protestant Reformation in the Duchy of Pomerania and Denmark in the 16th century. Amon...
Johannes Bugenhagen - Wikipedia
Irresistible grace
Irresistible Grace (or efficacious grace) is a doctrine in Christian theology particularly associated with Calvinism, which teaches that the saving grace of God is effectually applied to those whom he...
Irresistible grace - Wikipedia
History of religion in the Netherlands
The history of religion in the Netherlands has been characterized by considerable diversity of religious thought and practice. Since 1600 until the second half of the 20th century, the North and West...
History of religion in the Netherlands - Wikipedia
English Reformation
The English Reformation was a series of events in 16th-century England by which the Church of England broke away from the authority of the Pope and the Catholic Church.These events were, in part, asso...
English Reformation - Wikipedia
Indulgence
In the teaching of the Catholic Church, an indulgence is "a remission before God of the temporal punishment due to sins whose guilt has already been forgiven, which the faithful Christian who is duly ...
Indulgence - Wikipedia
Marie Dentière
Marie Dentière (c. 1495–1561) was a Genevan Protestant reformer and theologian. She played an active role in Genevan religion and politics, playing a large role in the closure of Geneva's conven...
Marie Dentière - Wikipedia
Life is a Dream
Life Is a Dream (Spanish: La vida es sueño) is a Spanish-language play by Pedro Calderón de la Barca. First published in 1635 (or possibly early in 1636), it is a philosophical allegory regarding ...
Life is a Dream - Wikipedia
Magnus Agricola
Magnus Agricola (ca. 1556 – September 28/29, 1605) was a German Lutheran bishop and theologian.The nephew of Renaissance humanist and statesman Peter Agricola, he became church minister as well as Sup...