Critical phenomena
In physics, critical phenomena is the collective name associated with thephysics of critical points. Most of them stem from the divergence of the correlation length, but also the dynamics slows down. ...
3 share Nobel Prize in physics for discoveries on strange states of matter
Three physicists share the Nobel Prize for their work discovering strange states of matter
Phase transition
A phase transition is the transformation of a thermodynamic system from one phase or state of matter to another one by heat transfer. The term is most commonly used to describe transitions between sol...
Phase transition - Wikipedia
Renormalization group
In theoretical physics, the renormalization group (RG) refers to a mathematical apparatus that allows systematic investigation of the changes of a physical system as viewed at different distance scal...
3 share Nobel Prize in physics for discoveries on strange states of matter
Three physicists share the Nobel Prize for their work discovering strange states of matter
Widom scaling
Widom scaling (after Benjamin Widom) is a hypothesis in statistical mechanics regarding the free energy of a magnetic system near its critical point which leads to the critical exponents becoming no l...
Congruent melting
Congruent melting occurs during melting of a compound when the composition of the liquid that forms is the same as the composition of the solid. It can be contrasted with incongruent melting. This gen...
Congruent melting - Wikipedia
Heteroazeotrope
A heteroazeotrope is an azeotrope where the vapour phase coexists with two liquid phases.Sketch of a T-x/y equilibrium curve of a typical heteroazeotropic mixture
Heteroazeotrope - Wikipedia
Sublimation (phase transition)
Sublimation is the transition of a substance directly from the solid to the gas phase without passing through the intermediate liquid phase. Sublimation is an endothermic phase transition that occurs ...
Sublimation (phase transition) - Wikipedia
Cutoff (physics)
In theoretical physics, cutoff is an arbitrary maximal or minimal value of energy, momentum, or length, used in order that objects with larger or smaller values than these physical quantities are igno...
Social thermodynamics theory
In physics, social thermodynamics theory attempts to describe social phenomena using an approach with the mathematical structure of thermodynamics. It is based on the general variational principle of ...
Numerical renormalization group
The numerical renormalization group (NRG) is a technique devised by Kenneth Wilson to solve certain many-body problems where quantum impurity physics plays a key role. It is an inherently non-perturba...
Crystallization
Crystallization is the (natural or artificial) process of formation of solid crystals precipitating from a solution, melt or more rarely deposited directly from a gas. Crystallization is also a chemic...
Crystallization - Wikipedia
Condensation
Condensation is the change of the physical state of matter from gas phase into liquid phase, and is the reverse of evaporation. Mostly refers to the water cycle. It can also be defined as the change i...
Condensation - Wikipedia
Critical point (thermodynamics)
In thermodynamics, a critical point (or critical state) is the end point of a phase equilibrium curve. The most prominent example is the liquid-vapor critical point, the end point of the pressure-temp...
Critical point (thermodynamics) - Wikipedia
Multicritical point
Multicritical points are special points in the parameter space of thermodynamic or other systems with a continuous phase transition. At least two thermodynamic or other parameters must be adjusted to ...
Multicritical point - Wikipedia
Abelian sandpile model
The Abelian sandpile model, also known as the Bak–Tang–Wiesenfeld model, was the first discovered example of a dynamical system displaying self-organized criticality. It was introduced by Per Bak, Ch...
Abelian sandpile model - Wikipedia
Spinodal decomposition
Spinodal decomposition is a mechanism for the rapid unmixing of a mixture of liquids or solids from one thermodynamic phase, to form two coexisting phases. As an example, consider a hot mixture of wat...
Directed percolation
In statistical physics, directed percolation (DP) refers to a class of models that mimic filtering of fluids through porous materials along a given direction. Varying the microscopic connectivity of t...
Continuous cooling transformation
A continuous cooling transformation (CCT) phase diagram is often used when heat treating steel. These diagrams are used to represent which types of phase changes will occur in a material as it is cool...
Triple point
In thermodynamics, the triple point of a substance is the temperature and pressure at which the three phases (gas, liquid, and solid) of that substance coexist in thermodynamic equilibrium. For exampl...
Lower critical solution temperature
The lower critical solution temperature (LCST) or lower consolute temperature is the critical temperature below which the components of a mixture are miscible for all compositions. The word lower indi...
Lower critical solution temperature - Wikipedia
Scale-free ideal gas
The scale-free ideal gas (SFIG) is a physical model assuming a collection of non-interacting elements with an stochastic proportional growth. It is the scale-invariant version of an ideal gas. Some c...
Dangerously irrelevant operator
In statistical mechanics and quantum field theory, a dangerously irrelevant operator (or dangerous irrelevant operator) is an operator which is irrelevant, yet affects the infrared (IR) physics signif...
Dangerously irrelevant operator - Wikipedia
Lambda transition
The λ (lambda) universality class is probably the most important group in condensed matter physics. It regroups several systems possessing strong analogies, namely, superfluids, superconductors and sm...
Lambda transition - Wikipedia
Zeotropic mixture
A zeotropic mixture is a chemical mixture that never has the same vapor phase and liquid phase composition at the vapor–liquid equilibrium state. The dew point and bubble point curves in the graph sho...
Zeotropic mixture - Wikipedia
Isothermal transformation diagram
Isothermal transformation diagrams (also known as time-temperature-transformation (TTT) diagrams) are plots of temperature versus time (usually on a logarithmic scale). They are generated from percent...
Melting-point depression
Melting-point depression is the phenomenon of reduction of the melting point of a material with reduction of its size. This phenomenon is very prominent in nanoscale materials, which melt at temperat...
Melting-point depression - Wikipedia
Fermi point
The term Fermi point has two applications but refers to the same phenomena (special relativity):For both applications count that the symmetry between particles and anti-particles in weak interactions ...
Fermi point - Wikipedia
Distillation
Distillation is a process of separating the component substances from a liquid mixture by selective evaporation and condensation. Distillation may result in essentially complete separation (nearly pur...
Distillation - Wikipedia