Algebraic number theory
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Root of unity
Cyclotomic field
In number theory, a cyclotomic field is a number field obtained by adjoining a complex primitive root of unity to Q, the field of rational numbers. The n-th cyclotomic field Q(ζn) (where n > 2) is ...
Iwasawa theory
In number theory, Iwasawa theory is the study of objects of arithmetic interest over infinite towers of number fields. It began as a Galois module theory of ideal class groups, initiated by Iwasawa...
Stickelberger's theorem
In mathematics, Stickelberger's theorem is a result of algebraic number theory, which gives some information about the Galois module structure of class groups of cyclotomic fields. A special case was ...
Jacobi sum
In mathematics, a Jacobi sum is a type of character sum formed with Dirichlet characters. Simple examples would be Jacobi sums J(, ) for Dirichlet characters , modulo a prime number p, defined bywh...
Kummer–Vandiver conjecture
In mathematics, the Kummer–Vandiver conjecture, or Vandiver conjecture, states that a prime p does not divide the class number hK of the maximal real subfield of the p-th cyclotomic field. The conj...
Eisenstein integer
In mathematics, Eisenstein integers (named after Gotthold Eisenstein), also known as Eulerian integers (after Leonhard Euler), are complex numbers of the form where a and b are integers andis a primit...
Eisenstein integer - Wikipedia
Chowla–Mordell theorem
In mathematics, the Chowla–Mordell theorem is a result in number theory determining cases where a Gauss sum is the square root of a prime number, multiplied by a root of unity. It was proved and publi...
Hilbert–Speiser theorem
In mathematics, the Hilbert–Speiser theorem is a result on cyclotomic fields, characterising those with a normal integral basis. More generally, it applies to any finite abelian extension of Q, which ...
Hilbert–Speiser theorem - Wikipedia
Hasse–Davenport relation
The Hasse–Davenport relations, introduced by Davenport and Hasse (1935), are two related identities for Gauss sums, one called the Hasse–Davenport lifting relation, and the other called ...
Hasse–Davenport relation - Wikipedia
Eisenstein prime
In mathematics, an Eisenstein prime is an Eisenstein integerthat is irreducible (or equivalently prime) in the ring-theoretic sense: its only Eisenstein divisors are the units (±1, ±ω, ...
Gaussian integer
In number theory, a Gaussian integer is a complex number whose real and imaginary parts are both integers. The Gaussian integers, with ordinary addition and multiplication of complex numbers, form an ...
Gaussian integer - Wikipedia
Quadratic Gauss sum
In number theory, quadratic Gauss sums are certain finite sums of roots of unity. A quadratic Gauss sum can be interpreted as a linear combination of the values of the complex exponential function wit...
Kummer sum
In mathematics, Kummer sum is the name given to certain cubic Gauss sums for a prime modulus p, with p congruent to 1 modulo 3. They are named after Ernst Kummer, who made a conjecture about the stati...
Herbrand–Ribet theorem
In mathematics, the Herbrand–Ribet theorem is a result on the class group of certain number fields. It is a strengthening of Ernst Kummer's theorem to the effect that the prime p divides the class num...
Root of unity
In mathematics, a root of unity, occasionally called a de Moivre number, is any complex number that gives 1 when raised to some integer power n. Roots of unity are used in many branches of mathematic...
Root of unity - Wikipedia
Regular prime
In number theory, a regular prime is a special kind of prime number, defined by Ernst Kummer in 1850 to prove certain cases of Fermat's Last Theorem. Regular primes may be defined via the divisibility...
Kummer ring
In abstract algebra, a Kummer ring is a subring of the ring of complex numbers, such that each of its elements has the formwhere ζ is an mth root of unity, i.e.and n0 through nm−1 are integers.A Kumm...
Gaussian rational
In mathematics, a Gaussian rational number is a complex number of the form p + qi, where p and q are both rational numbers.The set of all Gaussian rationals forms the Gaussian rational field...
Cyclotomic polynomial
In mathematics, more specifically in algebra, the nth cyclotomic polynomial, for any positive integer n, is the unique irreducible polynomial with integer coefficients, which is a divisor of and is n...
Kronecker–Weber theorem
In algebraic number theory, it can be shown that every cyclotomic field is an abelian extension of the rational number field Q. The Kronecker–Weber theorem provides a partial converse: every abelian e...
Cyclotomic unit
In mathematics, a cyclotomic unit (or circular unit) is a unit of an algebraic number field which is the product of numbers of the form (ζan − 1) for ζn an n root of unity and 0 < a...
Gaussian period
In mathematics, in the area of number theory, a Gaussian period is a certain kind of sum of roots of unity. The periods permit explicit calculations in cyclotomic fields connected with Galois theory a...
Gauss sum
In mathematics, a Gauss sum or Gaussian sum is a particular kind of finite sum of roots of unity, typicallywhere the sum is over elements r of some finite commutative ring R, ψ(r) is a group homo...