Time
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Archaeology
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Chronology
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Conservation-restoration
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Dating methods
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Methods and principles in archaeology
Dating methodologies in archaeology
Dating material drawn from the archaeological record can be made by a direct study of an artifact, or may be deduced by association with materials found in the context the item is drawn from or inferr...
Incremental dating
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Radiometric dating
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Absolute dating
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Amino acid dating
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Dendrochronology
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Fluorine absorption dating
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Obsidian hydration dating
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Optical dating
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Oxidizable carbon ratio dating
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Rehydroxylation dating
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Relative dating
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Skeletochronology
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Thermoluminescence dating
Incremental dating
Incremental dating techniques allow the construction of year-by-year annual chronologies, which can be temporally fixed (i.e., linked to the present day and thus calendar or sidereal time) or floating...
Radiometric dating
Radiometric dating (often called radioactive dating) is a technique used to date materials such as rocks or carbon, usually based on a comparison between the observed abundance of a naturally occurrin...
Radiometric dating - Wikipedia
Absolute dating
Absolute dating is the process of determining an age on a specified time scale in archaeology and geology. Some scientists prefer the terms chronometric or calendar dating, as use of the word "absolut...
Absolute dating - Wikipedia
Amino acid dating
Amino acid dating is a dating technique used to estimate the age of a specimen in paleobiology, molecular paleontology, archaeology, forensic science, taphonomy, sedimentary geology and other fields. ...
Dendrochronology
Dendrochronology (from δένδρον, dendron, "tree limb"; χρόνος, khronos, "time"; and -λογία, -logia) or tree-ring dating, is the scientific method of dating based on the analysis of patterns of tree rin...
Dendrochronology - Wikipedia
Fluorine absorption dating
Fluorine absorption dating is a method used to determine the amount of time an object has been underground.Fluorine absorption dating can be carried out based on the fact that groundwater contains flu...
Obsidian hydration dating
Obsidian hydration dating (OHD) is a geochemical method of determining age in either absolute or relative terms of an artifact made of obsidian.Obsidian is a volcanic glass that was used by prehistori...
Optical dating
Optical dating is a method of determining how long ago minerals were last exposed to daylight. It is useful to geologists and archaeologists who want to know when such an event occurred.It refers to t...
Oxidizable carbon ratio dating
Oxidizable carbon ratio dating is a method of dating in archaeology and earth science that can be used to derive or estimate the age of soil and sediment samples up to 35,000 years old. The method is ...
Rehydroxylation dating
Rehydroxylation [RHX] dating is a developing method for dating fired-clay ceramics. It is based on the fact that after a ceramic specimen is removed from the kiln at the time of production, it immedia...
Relative dating
Relative dating is the science of determining the relative order of past events (i.e., the age of an object in comparison to another), without necessarily determining their absolute age, (i.e. estimat...
Relative dating - Wikipedia
Skeletochronology
Skeletochronology is used to determine the chronological age of a species of animal by counting the concentric growth rings found in a cross section of bone. This technique cannot be used for all spec...
Thermoluminescence dating
Thermoluminescence (TL) dating is the determination, by means of measuring the accumulated radiation dose, of the time elapsed since material containing crystalline minerals was either heated (lava,...
Thermoluminescence dating - Wikipedia
Isochron dating
Isochron dating is a common technique of radiometric dating and is applied to date certain events, such as crystallization, metamorphism, shock events, and differentiation of precursor melts, in the h...
Lead-lead dating
Lead-lead dating is a method for dating geological samples, normally based on 'whole-rock' samples of material such as granite. For most dating requirements it has been superseded by uranium-lead dati...
Lead-lead dating - Wikipedia
Argon–argon dating
Argon–argon (or Ar/Ar) dating is a radiometric dating method invented to supersede potassium-argon (K/Ar) dating in accuracy. The older method required splitting samples into two for separate potassiu...
Helium dating
Helium dating may refer to the traditional uranium-thorium dating or uranium-thorium/helium dating. A relatively new dating method, tritium-helium dating has been developed for determining rates of o...
Uranium-lead dating
Uranium–lead (U–Pb) dating is one of the oldest and most refined of the radiometric dating schemes. It can be used to date rocks that formed from about 1 million years to over 4.5 billion years ago w...
Uranium-lead dating - Wikipedia
Potassium-argon dating
Potassium–argon dating, abbreviated K–Ar dating, is a radiometric dating method used in geochronology and archaeology. It is based on measurement of the product of the radioactive decay of an isotope ...
Samarium-neodymium dating
Samarium-neodymium dating is useful for determining the age relationships of rocks and meteorites, based on decay of a long-lived samarium (Sm) isotope to a radiogenic neodymium (Nd) isotope. Nd isoto...
Samarium-neodymium dating - Wikipedia
Rhenium-osmium dating
Rhenium-Osmium dating is a form of radiometric dating based on the beta decay of the isotope Re to Os. This normally occurs with a half-life of 41.6 × 10 y, but studies using fully ionised Re atoms h...
Closure temperature
In radiometric dating, closure temperature or blocking temperature refers to the temperature of a system, such as a mineral, at the time given by its radiometric date. In physical terms, the closure t...
Ionium-thorium dating
Ionium-thorium dating is a technique for determining the age of marine sediments based upon the quantities present of nearly stable thorium-232 and radioactive thorium-230. (Th was once known as ioniu...
Uranium-uranium dating
Uranium-uranium dating is a radiometric dating technique which compares two isotopes of uranium (U) in a sample: U and U. U/U dating is one of several radiometric dating techniques exploiting the ura...
Uranium-thorium dating
Uranium-thorium dating, also called thorium-230 dating, uranium-series disequilibrium dating or uranium-series dating, is a radiometric dating technique commonly used to determine the age of calcium c...
Fission track dating
Fission track dating is a radiometric dating technique based on analyses of the damage trails, or tracks, left by fission fragments in certain uranium-bearing minerals and glasses. Fission-track dati...
Radiocarbon dating
Radiocarbon dating is a method of determining the age of an object containing organic material by using the properties of radiocarbon (14C), a radioactive isotope of carbon. The method was invented b...
Rubidium-strontium dating
The rubidium-strontium dating method is a radiometric dating technique used by scientists to determine the age of rocks and minerals from the quantities they contain of specific isotopes of rubidium (...
K–Ar dating
Potassium–argon dating, abbreviated K–Ar dating, is a radiometric dating method used in geochronology and archaeology. It is based on measurement of the product of the radioactive decay of an isotope ...