Deep sea communities
Deep sea communities are groups of organisms associated by a shared habitat in the deep sea. They remain largely unexplored, due to the technological and logististical challenges and expense involved ...
Deep sea communities - Wikipedia
Barophile
A piezophile (also called a barophile) is an organism which thrives at high pressures, such as deep sea bacteria or archaea. They are generally found on ocean floors, where pressure often exceeds 380 ...
Thermophile
A thermophile is an organism — a type of extremophile — that thrives at relatively high temperatures, between 41 and 122 °C (106 and 252 °F). Many thermophiles are archaea. Thermophilic euba...
Thermophile - Wikipedia
Halophile
Halophiles are organisms that thrive in high salt concentrations. They are a type of extremophile organism. The name comes from the Greek word for "salt-loving". While most halophiles are classified...
Mesopelagic zone
The mesopelagic (Greek μέσον, middle) (also known as the middle pelagic or twilight zone) is that part of the pelagic zone that extends from a depth of 200 to 1000 metres (~660 to 3300 feet) below the...
Bathyal zone
The bathyal zone or bathypelagic – from Greek βαθύς (bathýs), deep – (also known as midnight zone) is the part of the pelagic zone that extends from a depth of 1000 to 4000 metres (3300 to 13000 feet)...
Abyssal plain
An abyssal plain is an underwater plain on the deep ocean floor, usually found at depths between 3000 and 6000 m. Lying generally between the foot of a continental rise and a mid-ocean ridge, aby...
Abyssal plain - Wikipedia
Oceanic trench
The oceanic trenches are hemispheric-scale long but narrow topographic depressions of the sea floor. They are also the deepest parts of the ocean floor. Oceanic trenches are a distinctive morphologica...
Oceanic trench - Wikipedia
Oceanic zone
The oceanic zone begins in the area off shore where the water measures 200 metres (656 feet) deep or deeper.It is the region of open sea beyond the edge of the continental shelf and includes 65% ...
Cold seep
A cold seep (sometimes called a cold vent) is an area of the ocean floor where hydrogen sulfide, methane and other hydrocarbon-rich fluid seepage occurs, often in the form of a brine pool. "Cold" does...
Cold seep - Wikipedia
Benthos
Benthos is the community of organisms which live on, in, or near the seabed, also known as the benthic zone. This community lives in or near marine sedimentary environments, from tidal pools along the...
Benthos - Wikipedia
Demersal fish
Demersal fish live and feed on or near the bottom of seas or lakes (the demersal zone). They occupy the sea floors and lake beds, which usually consist of mud, sand, gravel or rocks. In coastal waters...
Demersal fish - Wikipedia
Bathymetry
Bathymetry is the study of underwater depth of lake or ocean floors. In other words, bathymetry is the underwater equivalent to hypsometry or topography. The name comes from Greek βαθύς (bathus), "dee...
Bathymetry - Wikipedia
Offshore drilling
Offshore drilling is a mechanical process where a wellbore is drilled through the seabed. It is typically carried out in order to explore for and subsequently extract petroleum which lies in rock fo...
Offshore drilling - Wikipedia
Deep sea fish
Deep-sea fish are fish that live in the darkness below the sunlit surface waters, that is below the epipelagic or photic zone of the ocean. The lanternfish is, by far, the most common deep-sea fish. ...
Deep sea fish - Wikipedia
Deep sea creature
The term deep sea creature refers to organisms that live below the photic zone of the ocean. These creatures must survive in extremely harsh conditions, such as hundreds of bars of pressure, small amo...
Plate tectonics
Plate tectonics (from the Late Latin tectonicus, from the Greek: τεκτονικός "pertaining to building") is a scientific theory that describes the large-scale motion of Earth's lithosphere. This theo...
Plate tectonics - Wikipedia
Hydrothermal vent
A hydrothermal vent is a fissure in a planet's surface from which geothermally heated water issues. Hydrothermal vents are commonly found near volcanically active places, areas where tectonic plates a...
Hydrothermal vent - Wikipedia
Deep sea mining
Deep sea mining is a relatively new mineral retrieval process that takes place on the ocean floor. Ocean mining sites are usually around large areas of polymetallic nodules or active and extinct hydr...
Mantle convection
Mantle convection is the slow creeping motion of Earth's solid silicate mantle caused by convection currents carrying heat from the interior of the Earth to the surface. The Earth's surface lithospher...
Mantle convection - Wikipedia