Economic efficiency
Economics is the social science that studies economic activity to gain an understanding of the processes that govern the production, distribution and consumption of goods and services in an economy.T...
Economic liberalization
Economic liberalization is the lessening of government regulations and restrictions in an economy in exchange for greater participation by private entities; the doctrine is associated with classical l...
Financial ratio
A financial ratio (or accounting ratio) is a relative magnitude of two selected numerical values taken from an enterprise's financial statements. Often used in accounting, there are many standard rati...
Constrained Pareto efficiency
The condition of Constrained Pareto optimality is a weaker version of the standard condition of Pareto Optimality employed in Economics which accounts for the fact that a potential planner (i.e. the g...
X-inefficiency
X-inefficiency is the difference between efficient behavior of businesses assumed or implied by economic theory and their observed behavior in practice. It occurs when technical-efficiency is not bein...
Kaldor–Hicks efficiency
Kaldor–Hicks efficiency, named for Nicholas Kaldor and John Hicks, also known as Kaldor–Hicks criterion, is a measure of economic efficiency that captures some of the intuitive appeal of Pareto effici...
Kaldor–Hicks efficiency - Wikipedia
Hansen–Jagannathan bound
Hansen–Jagannathan bound is a theorem in financial economics that says that the ratio of the standard deviation of a stochastic discount factor to its mean exceeds the Sharpe Ratio attained by any por...
Distortion (economics)
A distortion is departure from the allocation of economic resources from the state in which each agent maximizes his/her own welfare. A proportional wage-income tax, for instance, is distortionary, wh...
Open skies
Open skies is an international policy concept that calls for the liberalization of the rules and regulations of the international aviation industry—especially commercial aviation—in order to create a ...
Open skies - Wikipedia
Tax avoidance
Tax avoidance is the legal usage of the tax regime to one's own advantage to reduce the amount of tax that is payable by means that are within the law. Tax sheltering is very similar, although unlike ...
Tax avoidance - Wikipedia
Price–sales ratio
Price–sales ratio, P/S ratio, or PSR, is a valuation metric for stocks. It is calculated by dividing the company's market cap by the revenue in the most recent year; or, equivalently, divide the per-s...
Fixed-asset turnover
Fixed-asset turnover is the ratio of sales (on the profit and loss account) to the value of fixed assets (on the balance sheet). It indicates how well the business is using its fixed assets to generat...
Big Bang (financial markets)
The phrase Big Bang, used in reference to the sudden deregulation of financial markets, was coined to describe measures, including abolition of fixed commission charges and of the distinction between ...
Big Bang (financial markets) - Wikipedia
Capital account convertibility
Capital account convertibility is a feature of a nation's financial regime that centers on the ability to conduct transactions of local financial assets into foreign financial assets freely and at cou...
Time and motion study
Original Films Of Frank B. Gilbreth (Part I)A time and motion study (or time-motion study) is a business efficiency technique combining the Time Study work of Frederick Winslow Taylor with the Motio...
Time and motion study - Wikipedia
Deregulation of the Texas electricity market
Electricity deregulation in Texas, approved by Texas Senate Bill 7 on January 1, 2002, calls for the creation of the Electric Utility Restructuring Legislative Oversight Committee to oversee implement...
Cog's Ladder
Cog's Ladder of group development is based on the work, "Cog's Ladder: A Model of Group Growth", by George O. Charrier, an employee of Procter and Gamble, published in a company newsletter in 1972. T...
Optimal capital income taxation
Optimal capital income taxation is a subarea of optimal tax theory which refers to the study of designing a tax on capital income thus that a given economic criterion like utility is optimized. Starti...
Price dispersion
In economics, price dispersion is variation in prices across sellers of the same item, holding fixed the item's characteristics. Price dispersion can be viewed as a measure of trading frictions (or, ...
Economic liberalization in the post-war (post WWII) era
The period directly after World War II saw many countries adopt policies of economic liberalisation in order to stimulate their economies.The period directly after the war did not see many, the most n...
Economic liberalization in the post-war (post WWII) era - Wikipedia
Bus deregulation in Great Britain
Bus deregulation in the United Kingdom was the transfer of operation of bus services from public bodies to private companies as legislated by the Transport Act 1985.
In the early 1980s much of the...
Bus deregulation in Great Britain - Wikipedia
Fiscal illusion
Fiscal illusion is a public choice theory of government expenditure first developed by the Italian economist Amilcare Puviani in his 1903 book Teoria della illusione finanziaria (Theory of Financial I...
American Information Exchange
The American Information Exchange (AMIX) was a platform for the buying and selling of information, goods and services as well as the exchange of information, ideas, and certain kinds of intellectual w...
Efficient contract theory
Efficient contract theory suggests that in a perfectly competitive market, if a contract exists, then it must be efficient due to the survivorship principle.For example, the Initial Public Offering ma...
Tax incidence
In economics, tax incidence is the analysis of the effect of a particular tax on the distribution of economic welfare. Tax incidence is said to "fall" upon the group that ultimately bears the burden o...
Total expense ratio
The total expense ratio, or TER, is a measure of the total cost of a fund to the investor. Total costs may include various fees (purchase, redemption, auditing) and other expenses. The TER is calculat...