Formal epistemology
Formal epistemology uses formal methods from decision theory, logic, probability theory and computability theory to model and reason about issues of epistemological interest. Work in this area spans s...
Belief revision
Belief revision is the process of changing beliefs to take into account a new piece of information. The logical formalization of belief revision is researched in philosophy, in databases, and in artif...
Causal inference
Causal inference is the process of drawing a conclusion about a causal connection based on the conditions of the occurrence of an effect. The main difference between causal inference and inference of ...
Decision theory
Decision theory or theory of choice in economics, psychology, philosophy, mathematics, computer science, and statistics is concerned with identifying the values, uncertainties and other issues relevan...
Scientific method
The scientific method is a body of techniques for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge. To be termed scientific, a method of inquiry is co...
Scientific method - Wikipedia
Heterophenomenology
Heterophenomenology ("phenomenology of another not oneself") is a term coined by Daniel Dennett to describe an explicitly third-person, scientific approach to the study of consciousness and other ment...
Rubin causal model
The Rubin causal model (RCM), also known as the Neyman–Rubin causal model, is an approach to the statistical analysis of cause and effect based on the framework of potential outcomes, named after Dona...
Applied information economics
Applied information economics (AIE) is a decision analysis method developed by Douglas W. Hubbard and partially described in his book How to Measure Anything: Finding the Value of Intangibles in Busin...
Lock-in (decision-making)
Lock-in means that a particular technology or product is dominant, not because its inherent cost is low or performance is good, but because it enjoys the benefits of increasing returns to scale. As a ...
Buyer decision process
The Buyer decision process is the decision making process used by consumers regarding market transactions before, during, and after the purchase of a good or service.More generally, decision making is...
Buyer decision process - Wikipedia
Construct (philosophy of science)
A construct in the philosophy of science is an ideal object, where the existence of the thing may be said to depend upon a subject's mind. This, as opposed to a real object, where existence does not...
Pseudoskepticism
Pseudoskepticism (or pseudoscepticism) is a term referring to a philosophical or scientific position which appears to be that of skepticism or scientific skepticism but which in reality fails to be so...
Open-label trial
An open-label trial or open trial is a type of clinical trial in which both the researchers and participants know which treatment is being administered.This contrasts with single blind and double blin...
Causality
Causality (also referred to as causation) is the relation between an event (the cause) and a second event (the effect), where the second event is understood as a physical consequence of the first.In c...
Causality - Wikipedia
Difference in differences
Difference in differences (sometimes 'Difference-in-Differences', 'DID', or 'DD') is a statistical technique used in econometrics and quantitative sociology, which attempts to mimic an experimental r...
Difference in differences - Wikipedia
Observation
Observation is the active acquisition of information from a primary source. In living beings, observation employs the senses. In science, observation can also involve the recording of data via the us...
Confounding
In statistics, a confounding variable (also confounding factor, a confound, or confounder) is an extraneous variable in a statistical model that correlates (directly or inversely) with both the depend...
Value of information
Value of information (VOI or VoI) is the amount a decision maker would be willing to pay for information prior to making a decision.
VoI is sometimes distinguished into value of perfect informatio...
Open notebook science
Open notebook science is the practice of making the entire primary record of a research project publicly available online as it is recorded. This involves placing the personal, or laboratory, notebook...
Anomalistic psychology
In psychology, anomalistic psychology is the study of human behaviour and experience connected with what is often called the paranormal, with the assumption that there is nothing paranormal involved.<...
Anomalistic psychology - Wikipedia
Selection bias
Selection bias refers to the selection of individuals, groups or data for analysis such that proper randomization is not achieved, thereby ensuring that the sample obtained is not representative of th...
Alhazen
Abū ʿAlī al-Ḥasan ibn al-Ḥasan ibn al-Haytham (Arabic: أبو علي، الحسن بن الحسن بن الهيثم‎), frequently referred to as Ibn al-Haytham (Arabic: ابن الهيثم, Latinized as Alhazen or Alhacen; c. ...
Alhazen - Wikipedia
Qualitative research
Qualitative research is a method of inquiry employed in many different academic disciplines, traditionally in the social sciences, but also in market research and further contexts. Qualitative researc...
Decision matrix
A decision matrix is a list of values in rows and columns that allows an analyst to systematically identify, analyze, and rate the performance of relationships between sets of values and information. ...
Analytic Hierarchy Process
The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) is a structured technique for organizing and analyzing complex decisions, based on mathematics and psychology. It was developed by Thomas L. Saaty in the 1970s an...
Analytic Hierarchy Process - Wikipedia
Expert elicitation
In science, engineering, and research, expert elicitation is the synthesis of opinions of authorities of a subject where there is uncertainty due to insufficient data or when such data is unattainable...
Hypotheses
A hypothesis (plural hypotheses) is a proposed explanation for a phenomenon. For a hypothesis to be a scientific hypothesis, the scientific method requires that one can test it. Scientists generally ...
Hypotheses - Wikipedia
Decision-making software
Decision-making software (DMS) is used to help individuals and organizations with their decision-making processes, typically resulting in ranking, sorting or choosing from among alternatives.An early ...
Blind experiment
A blind or blinded experiment is an experiment in which information about the test that might lead to bias in the results is concealed from the tester, the subject, or both until after the test. Bias ...