Higher criticism
Historical criticism, also known as the historical-critical method or higher criticism, is a branch of literary criticism that investigates the origins of ancient text in order to understand "the worl...
Higher criticism - Wikipedia
Source criticism
Source criticism (or information evaluation) is the process of evaluating an information source, i.e. a document, a person, a speech, a fingerprint, a photo, an observation or anything used in order t...
Form criticism
Form criticism is a method of biblical criticism that classifies units of scripture by literary pattern and then attempts to trace each type to its period of oral transmission. Form criticism seeks t...
Form criticism - Wikipedia
Redaction criticism
Redaction criticism, also called Redaktionsgeschichte, Kompositionsgeschichte or Redaktionstheologie, is a critical method for the study of biblical texts. Redaction criticism regards the author of th...
Radical Criticism
Radical Criticism is a movement around the late 19th century that, typically, denied authentic authorship of the Pauline epistles. This went beyond the higher criticism of the Tübingen school which (...
Authorship of the Bible
Few biblical books are regarded by scholars as the product of a single individual; all the books of the Hebrew Bible have been edited and revised to produce the work known today. The following article...
Authorship of the Bible - Wikipedia
Dating the Bible
The oldest surviving Hebrew Bible manuscripts including the Dead Sea Scrolls date to about the 2nd century BCE (fragmentary) and some are stored at the Shrine of the Book in Jerusalem. The oldest reco...
Authorship of the Pauline epistles
The Pauline epistles are the fourteen books in the New Testament traditionally attributed to Paul the Apostle, although many dispute the anonymous Epistle to the Hebrews as being a Pauline epistle.The...
Authorship of the Pauline epistles - Wikipedia
Authorship of the Johannine works
The authorship of the Johannine works (the Gospel of John, Epistles of John, and the Book of Revelation) has been debated by scholars since at least the 2nd century AD. The main debate centers on who ...
Authorship of the Johannine works - Wikipedia
Origin and development of the Qur'an
The history of the Quran refers to the revelation of the Quran to Islamic prophet Muhammad, and its subsequent compilation. It spans several decades and forms an important part of early Islamic histor...
Origin and development of the Qur'an - Wikipedia
Biblical inspiration
Biblical inspiration is the doctrine in Christian theology that the authors and editors of the Bible were led or influenced by God with the result that their writings may be designated in some sense t...
Biblical inspiration - Wikipedia
Media manipulation
Media manipulation is a series of related techniques in which partisans create an image or argument that favours their particular interests. Such tactics may include the use of logical fallacies and p...
Epistle of Jude
The Epistle of Jude, often shortened to Jude, is the penultimate book of the New Testament and is attributed to Jude, the brother of James the Just.
The letter of Jude was one of the disputed bo...
Book of Wisdom
The Book of Wisdom or Wisdom of Solomon, sometimes referred to simply as Wisdom or the Book of the Wisdom of Solomon, is one of the books of the Bible. It is considered scripture, classified as deuter...
2 Maccabees
2 Maccabees is a deuterocanonical book which focuses on the Jews' revolt against Antiochus IV Epiphanes and concludes with the defeat of the Syrian general Nicanor in 161 BC by Judas Maccabeus, the he...
Documentary hypothesis
The documentary hypothesis (DH), sometimes called the Wellhausen hypothesis, proposes that the Pentateuch (the first five books of the Bible) was derived from originally independent, parallel and comp...
Documentary hypothesis - Wikipedia
Second Epistle of Peter
The Second Epistle of Peter, often referred to as Second Peter and written 2 Peter or in Roman numerals II Peter (especially in older references), is a book of the New Testament of the Bible, written...
Second Epistle of Peter - Wikipedia
Book of Tobit
The Book of Tobit (/ˈtoʊbɪt/; Book of Tobias in the Vulgate; from the Greek: Τωβιθ, and Hebrew: טובי Tobi "my good", also called the Book of Tobias from the Hebrew טוביה Tovya "God is good") is a book...
Book of Tobit - Wikipedia
Book of Jeremiah
The Book of Jeremiah (Hebrew: ספר יִרְמְיָהוּ‎; abbreviated Jer. or Jerem. in citations) is the second of the Latter Prophets in the Hebrew Bible, and the second of the Prophets in the Christian...
Book of Job
The Book of Job (/ˈdʒoʊb/; Hebrew: אִיוֹב Iyov) is one of the Writings (Ketuvim) of the Hebrew Bible, and the first poetic book in the Christian Old Testament. Addressing the theme of God's justice in...
Book of Job - Wikipedia
Nevi'im
Nevi'im (/nəviˈiːm, nəˈviːɪm/; Hebrew: נְבִיאִים Nəḇî'îm‎, "Prophets") is the second main division of the Hebrew Bible (the Tanakh), between the Torah (instruction) and Ketuvim (writings). It co...
Third Epistle of John
The Third Epistle of John, often referred to as Third John and written 3 John, is a book of the New Testament attributed to John the Evangelist, traditionally thought to be the author of the Gospel of...
Book of Isaiah
The Book of Isaiah (Hebrew: ספר ישעיה‎, "Sefer Yeshayahu") is the first of the Latter Prophets in the Hebrew Bible and the first of the Major Prophets in English Bibles. The oldest surviving ma...
Book of Isaiah - Wikipedia
Oral tradition and the historical Jesus
Oral gospel traditions, cultural information passed on from one generation to the next by word of mouth, were the first stage in the formation of the written gospels. These oral traditions included d...
Book of Lamentations
The Book of Lamentations (Hebrew: אֵיכָה, Eikhah) is a collection of poetic laments for the destruction of Jerusalem. In the Hebrew Bible it appears in the Ketuvim ("Writings"), beside the Song of Son...
Development of the New Testament canon
The canon of the New Testament is the set of books Christians regard as divinely inspired and constituting the New Testament of the Christian Bible. For most, it is an agreed-upon list of twenty-seven...
Cognitive bias
A cognitive bias is a pattern of deviation in judgment, whereby inferences about other people and situations may be drawn in an illogical fashion. Individuals create their own "subjective social reali...
Book of Esther
The Book of Esther, also known in Hebrew as "the Scroll" (Megillah), is a book in the third section (Ketuvim, "Writings") of the Jewish Tanakh (the Hebrew Bible) and in the Christian Old Testament. It...
Book of Esther - Wikipedia
2 Esdras
2 Esdras (also called 4 Esdras, Latin Esdras, or Latin Ezra) is the name of an apocalyptic book in many English versions of the Bible (see Naming conventions below). Its authorship is ascribed to Ezr...
Topkapi manuscript
The Topkapi manuscript is an early manuscript of the Quran dated to the late 1st century / early 2nd century (AH). This manuscript is kept in the Topkapi Palace Museum, Istanbul, Turkey. It was wrongl...
Topkapi manuscript - Wikipedia