History of the Papacy (1048-1257)
The history of the papacy from 1048 to 1257 was marked by conflict between popes and the Holy Roman Emperor, most prominently the Investiture Controversy, a dispute over who—pope or emperor̵...
History of the Papacy (1048-1257) - Wikipedia
Papal selection before 1059
There was no fixed process for papal selection before 1059. Popes, the bishops of Rome and the leaders of the Catholic Church, were often appointed by their predecessors or secular rulers. While the p...
Papal selection before 1059 - Wikipedia
Crescentii
The Crescentii clan (in modern Italian Crescenzi) — if they were an extended family — essentially ruled Rome and controlled the Papacy from the middle of the 10th century until the nearly simultaneous...
Crescentii - Wikipedia
Persecution of Christians in the Roman Empire
The anti-Christian policies or persecution of Christians in the Roman Empire occurred intermittently over a period of about three centuries until the 313 Edict of Milan issued by Emperors Constantine ...
Persecution of Christians in the Roman Empire - Wikipedia
Primacy of Simon Peter
Primacy of Simon Peter, also known as Petrine primacy (from the Latin Petrus for "Peter"), is the position of preeminence that is attributed to the Apostle Peter among the Twelve Apostles.It is to be ...
Primacy of Simon Peter - Wikipedia
Byzantine Papacy
The Byzantine Papacy was a period of Byzantine domination of the papacy from 537 to 752, when popes required the approval of the Byzantine Emperor for episcopal consecration, and many popes were chose...
Byzantine Papacy - Wikipedia
Counts of Tusculum
The counts of Tusculum were the most powerful secular noblemen in Latium, near Rome, in the present-day Italy between the 10th and 12th centuries. Several popes and an antipope during the 11th century...
Counts of Tusculum - Wikipedia
Saeculum obscurum
Saeculum obscurum (Latin: the Dark Age) is a name given to a period in the history of the Papacy during the first half of the 10th century, beginning with the installation of Pope Sergius III in 9...
Constantine I and Christianity
While the Roman Emperor Constantine the Great (reigned 306–337) ruled, Christianity began to transition to the dominant religion of the Roman Empire. Historians remain uncertain about Constantine's re...
Constantine I and Christianity - Wikipedia
Frankish Papacy
From 756 to 857, the papacy shifted from the orbit of the Byzantine Empire to the that of the kings of the Franks. Pepin the Short (ruled 751–768), Charlemagne (r. 768–814) (co-ruler with his brother...
Frankish Papacy - Wikipedia
Ostrogothic Papacy
The Ostrogothic Papacy was a period from 493 to 537 where the papacy was strongly influenced by the Ostrogothic Kingdom, if the pope was not outright appointed by the Ostrogothic King. The selection a...
Ostrogothic Papacy - Wikipedia
Apostolic succession
Apostolic succession is the method whereby the ministry of the Christian Church is held to be derived from the apostles by a continuous succession, which has usually been associated with a claim that ...
Apostolic succession - Wikipedia
Decline of the Roman Empire
The causes and mechanisms of the decline of the Roman Empire are a historical theme that was introduced by historian Edward Gibbon in his 1776 book The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. He started...
Tusculan Papacy
The Tusculan Papacy was a period of papal history from 1012-1048 where three successive Counts of Tusculum installed themselves as pope.
Theophylact I, Count of Tusculum, his wife Theodora, and da...
Tusculan Papacy - Wikipedia
Investiture Controversy
The Investiture Controversy or Investiture Contest was the most significant conflict between Church and state in medieval Europe. In the 11th and 12th centuries, a series of popes challenged the aut...