Horizontal gene transfer
Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) refers to the transfer of genes between organisms in a manner other than traditional reproduction. Also termed lateral gene transfer (LGT), it contrasts with vertical tr...
Horizontal gene transfer - Wikipedia
Bacterial conjugation
Bacterial conjugation is the transfer of genetic material (plasmid) between bacterial cells by direct cell-to-cell contact or by a bridge-like connection between two cells. Discovered in 1946 by Joshu...
Transduction (genetics)
Transduction is the process by which DNA is transferred from one bacterium to another by a virus. It also refers to the process whereby foreign DNA is introduced into another cell via a viral vector. ...
Transduction (genetics) - Wikipedia
Transformation (genetics)
In molecular biology, transformation is the genetic alteration of a cell resulting from the direct uptake and incorporation of exogenous genetic material (exogenous DNA) from its surroundings and take...
Transfection
Transfection is the process of deliberately introducing nucleic acids into cells. The term is often used for non-viral methods in eukaryotic cells. It may also refer to other methods and cell types, a...
Chromosomal crossover
Chromosomal crossover (or crossing over) is the exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes that results in recombinant chromosomes. It is one of the final phases of genetic recombinat...
Chromosomal crossover - Wikipedia
Gene conversion
Gene conversion is the process by which one DNA sequence replaces a homologous sequence such that the sequences become identical after the conversion event. Gene conversion can be either allelic, mean...
Gene conversion - Wikipedia
Fusion gene
A fusion gene is a hybrid gene formed from two previously separate genes. It can occur as a result of: translocation, interstitial deletion, or chromosomal inversion.
The first fusion gene was dis...
Fusion gene - Wikipedia
Sister chromatid exchange
Sister chromatid exchange (SCE) is the exchange of genetic material between two identical sister chromatids.It was first discovered by using the Giemsa staining method on one chromatid belonging to th...
Sister chromatid exchange - Wikipedia
Transposon
A transposable element (TE or transposon) is a DNA sequence that can change its position within the genome, sometimes creating or reversing mutations and altering the cell's genome size. Transpositio...
Gene transfer agent
A gene transfer agent or "GTA" is a bacteriophage-like element produced by several bacteria that mediates horizontal gene transfer. GTAs package random segments of DNA present in the host bacterium, w...
Pilus
A pilus (Latin for 'hair'; plural : pili) is a hairlike appendage found on the surface of many bacteria. The terms pilus and fimbria (Latin for 'fringe'; plural: fimbriae) can be used interchang...
Transformation efficiency
Transformation efficiency is the efficiency by which cells can take up extracellular DNA and express genes encoded by it. This is based on the competence of the cells. It can be calculated by dividing...
Competence (biology)
In microbiology, genetics, cell biology, and molecular biology, competence is the ability of a cell to take up extracellular ("naked") DNA from its environment. Competence may be differentiated betwee...
RNA transfection
RNA transfection is the process of deliberately introducing RNA into a living cell. RNA can be purified from cells after lysis or synthesized from free nucleotides either chemically, or enzymatically...