Philosophy of science
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Scientific method
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Knowledge
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Scientific modelling
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Epistemology
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Problem solving
Analysis
Reasoning
Concepts in epistemology
Statistical inference
Abstraction
Philosophical methodology
Unreasonable
Reason
Causal inference
Inductive reasoning
Inductive reasoning (as opposed to deductive reasoning or abductive reasoning) is reasoning in which the premises seek to supply strong evidence for (not absolute proof of) the truth of the conclusion...
Problem of induction
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Statistical syllogism
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Argument from analogy
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Causality
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Inductive fallacies
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Mathematical induction
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Probability and statistics
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Scientific theory
Problem of induction
The problem of induction is the philosophical question of whether inductive reasoning leads to knowledge understood in the classic philosophical sense, since it focuses on the lack of justification fo...
Statistical syllogism
A statistical syllogism (or proportional syllogism or direct inference) is a non-deductive syllogism. It argues, using inductive reasoning, from a generalization true for the most part to a particular...
Argument from analogy
Argument from analogy is a special type of inductive argument, whereby perceived similarities are used as a basis to infer some further similarity that has yet to be observed. Analogical reasoning is...
Causality
Causality (also referred to as causation) is the relation between an event (the cause) and a second event (the effect), where the second event is understood as a physical consequence of the first.In c...
Causality - Wikipedia
Inductive fallacies
Mathematical induction
Mathematical induction is a method of mathematical proof typically used to establish a given statement for all natural numbers. It is a form of direct proof, and it is done in two steps. The first ste...
Mathematical induction - Wikipedia
Probability and statistics
Probability and statistics are two related but separate academic disciplines. Statistical analysis often uses probability distributions, and the two topics are often studied together. However, probabi...
Scientific theory
A scientific theory is a well-substantiated explanation of some aspect of the natural world that is acquired through the scientific method and repeatedly tested and confirmed through observation and e...
Scientific theory - Wikipedia
Four causes
"Four causes" refers to an influential principle in Aristotelian thought whereby causes of change or movement are categorized into four fundamental types of answer to the question "why?". Aristotle wr...
Transferable belief model
The transferable belief model (TBM) is an elaboration on the Dempster–Shafer theory of evidence.
Consider the following classical problem of information fusion. A patient has an illness that can b...
Pessimistic induction
In the philosophy of science, the pessimistic induction, also known as the pessimistic meta-induction, is an argument which seeks to rebut scientific realism, particularly the scientific realist's no...
Generalization
A generalization (or generalisation) is a concept in the inductive sense of that word, or an extension of the concept to less-specific criteria. It is a foundational element of logic and human reasoni...
Generalization - Wikipedia
Transfinite induction
Transfinite induction is an extension of mathematical induction to well-ordered sets, for example to sets of ordinal numbers or cardinal numbers.Let P(α) be a property defined for all ordinals α. Supp...
Simpson's paradox
Simpson's paradox, or the Yule–Simpson effect, is a paradox in probability and statistics, in which a trend that appears in different groups of data disappears or reverses when these groups are combin...
False analogy
Argument from analogy is a special type of inductive argument, whereby perceived similarities are used as a basis to infer some further similarity that has yet to be observed. Analogical reasoning is...
Support curve
Support curve is a statistical term, coined by A. W. F. Edwards, to describe the graph of the natural logarithm of the likelihood function. The function being plotted is used in the computation of the...
Cartographic generalization
Cartographic generalization, or map generalization, is the method whereby information is selected and represented on a map in a way that adapts to the scale of the display medium of the map, not neces...
McNamara fallacy
The McNamara fallacy (also known as quantitative fallacy), named for Robert McNamara, the United States Secretary of Defense from 1961 to 1968, involves making a decision based solely on quantitative ...
Concomitant (statistics)
In statistics, the concept of a concomitant, also called the induced order statistic, arises when one sorts the members of a random sample according to corresponding values of another random sample.Le...
Transfer entropy
Transfer entropy is a non-parametric statistic measuring the amount of directed (time-asymmetric) transfer of information between two random processes. Transfer entropy from a process X to another pro...
Imperfect induction
The imperfect induction is the process of inferring from a sample of a group to what is characteristic of the whole group.
Rule induction
Rule induction is an area of machine learning in which formal rules are extracted from a set of observations. The rules extracted may represent a full scientific model of the data, or merely represen...
Mill's Methods
Mill's Methods are five methods of induction described by philosopher John Stuart Mill in his 1843 book A System of Logic. They are intended to illuminate issues of causation.
For a property to be...
Infinite descent
In mathematics, a proof by infinite descent is a particular kind of proof by contradiction which relies on the facts that the natural numbers are well ordered and that there are only a finite number o...
Theories of deduction
Notation in probability and statistics
Probability theory and statistics have some commonly used conventions, in addition to standard mathematical notation and mathematical symbols.
Inverse resolution
Inverse resolution is an inductive reasoning technique that involves inverting the resolution operator.
Inverse resolution
Inductive reasoning aptitude
Inductive reasoning aptitude (also called differentiation or inductive learning ability) measures how well a person can identify a pattern within a large amount of data. It involves applying the rules...
Structural induction
Structural induction is a proof method that is used in mathematical logic (e.g., in the proof of Łoś' theorem), computer science, graph theory, and some other mathematical fields. It is a generalizat...
Trapezoidal distribution
In probability theory and statistics, the trapezoidal distribution is a continuous probability distribution with lower limit a, upper limit b and modes c and d, where a < b and a ≤&#...