Investiture Controversy
The Investiture Controversy or Investiture Contest was the most significant conflict between Church and state in medieval Europe. In the 11th and 12th centuries, a series of popes challenged the aut...
Walk to Canossa
The term Walk to Canossa (German, Gang nach Canossa), sometimes called the Humiliation of Canossa (Italian, l'umiliazione di Canossa), refers to the trek of Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV from Speyer to ...
Walk to Canossa - Wikipedia
Concordat of Worms
Concordat of Worms, sometimes called the Pactum Calixtinum by papal historians, was an agreement between Pope Calixtus II and Holy Roman Emperor Henry V on September 23, 1122 near the c...
Concordat of Worms - Wikipedia
Christianization of the Anglo-Saxon Kingdoms
The Christianisation of Anglo-Saxon England was a process spanning the 7th century.It is essentially the result of the Gregorian mission of 597, which was joined by the efforts of the Hiberno-Scotti...
Gebhard (III) of Constance
Gebhard III (circa 1040 – 12 November 1110) was Bishop of Constance and defender of papal rights against imperial encroachments during the Investiture Controversy.He was a son of Berthold II, Duke of ...
Gebhard (III) of Constance - Wikipedia
Lay abbot
Lay abbot (abbatocomes, abbas laicus, abbas miles) is a name used to designate a layman on whom a king or someone in authority bestowed an abbey as a reward for services rendered; he had charge of the...
Odo of Cambrai
Odo of Tournai, also known as Odoardus or Odo of Orléans (1060–1113), was a Benedictine monk, scholar and bishop of Cambrai (from 1105/6).Odo was born at Orléans. In 1087 he was invited by the canons ...
Odo of Cambrai - Wikipedia
Anselm of Lucca
Saint Anselm of Lucca (1036 – March 18, 1086), called the Younger or Anselm II to distinguish him from his uncle, was an Italian bishop, a prominent figure in the Investiture Controversy and in...
History of the Papacy (1048-1257)
The history of the papacy from 1048 to 1257 was marked by conflict between popes and the Holy Roman Emperor, most prominently the Investiture Controversy, a dispute over who—pope or emperor̵...
History of the Papacy (1048-1257) - Wikipedia
Papal appointment
Papal appointment was a medieval method of selecting a pope. Popes have always been selected by a council of Church fathers, however, Papal selection before 1059 was often characterized by confirmatio...
Papal appointment - Wikipedia
Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor
Henry IV (German: Heinrich IV; 11 November 1050 – 7 August 1106) ascended to King of the Germans in 1056. From 1084 until his forced abdication in 1105, he was also referred to as the King of the...
Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor - Wikipedia
Germanic Christianity
The Germanic peoples underwent gradual Christianization in the course of Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages. By AD 700, England and the Frankish Empire were officially Christian, and by 1100 Ger...
Germanic Christianity - Wikipedia
Gregorian Reform
The Gregorian Reforms were a series of reforms initiated by Pope Gregory VII and the circle he formed in the papal curia, circa 1050–80, which dealt with the moral integrity and independence of the c...
Wezilo
Wezilo, died 1088, was Archbishop of Mainz from 1084-88. He was a leading supporter of the Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV in the Investiture Controversy, and of Antipope Clement III.A priest in Halbersta...
Synod of Worms
The Synod of Worms was an ecclesiastical synod (and Imperial Diet of the Holy Roman Empire) convened by the Emperor Henry IV in January 1076, at Worms, Germany. It was intended to agree a condemnation...
Synod of Worms - Wikipedia
Pope Gregory VII
Pope Saint Gregory VII (Latin: Gregorius VII; c. 1015/1028 – 25 May 1085), born Hildebrand of Sovana (Italian: Ildebrando da Soana), was Pope from 22 April 1073 to his death in 1085.One of the...
Pope Gregory VII - Wikipedia
Papal selection before 1059
There was no fixed process for papal selection before 1059. Popes, the bishops of Rome and the leaders of the Catholic Church, were often appointed by their predecessors or secular rulers. While the p...
Papal selection before 1059 - Wikipedia
Libertas ecclesiae
Libertas ecclesiae ("freedom of the Church" in Latin) is the notion of freedom of ecclesiastical authority from secular or the temporal power, which guided the Reform movement which began in the 11th ...
Atto (archbishop of Milan)
Atto (Italian: Attone) was a Cardinal of the Catholic Church who lived in the 11th century.Born in Rome son of a noble family as a young man in 1062 he was elected by the chapter of the Milan cath...
Atto (archbishop of Milan) - Wikipedia
First Council of the Lateran
The Council of 1123 is reckoned in the series of Ecumenical councils by the Catholic Church. It was convoked by Pope Calixtus II in December, 1122, immediately after the Concordat of Worms. The Counci...
First Council of the Lateran - Wikipedia
Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor
Henry V (11 August 1086 – 23 May 1125) was King of Germany (from 1099 to 1125) and Holy Roman Emperor (from 1111 to 1125), the fourth and last ruler of the Salian dynasty. Henry's reign coincided with...
Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor - Wikipedia
Gotofredo da Castiglione
Gotofredo da Castiglione (sometimes given as Gotofredo II to distinguish him from Gotofredo I, Archbishop of Milan) was an Italian antibishop (1070–1075) appointed by Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor to t...
Great Saxon revolt
The Great Saxon Revolt was a civil war between 1077 and 1088 early in the history of the Holy Roman Empire led by a group of opportunistic German princes who elected as their figurehead the duke of Sw...
Great Saxon revolt - Wikipedia
Gothic Christianity
Gothic Christianity refers to the Christian religion of the Goths and sometimes the Gepids, Vandals, and Burgundians, who may have used Wulfila's translation of the Bible into Gothic and shared common...
Gothic Christianity - Wikipedia
Investiture
Investiture, from the Latin (preposition in and verb vestire, 'dress' from vestis 'robe') is a term for the formal installation of an incumbent as the insignia can include the formal dress and adornm...
Counts of Tusculum
The counts of Tusculum were the most powerful secular noblemen in Latium, near Rome, in the present-day Italy between the 10th and 12th centuries. Several popes and an antipope during the 11th century...
Counts of Tusculum - Wikipedia
Papal election, 1061
The papal election of 1061 was held on September 30, 1061 in San Pietro in Vincoli ("Saint Peter in Chains") in Rome, following the death of Pope Nicholas II. In accordance with Nicholas II's bull, In...
Papal election, 1061 - Wikipedia
Pornocracy
Saeculum obscurum (Latin: the Dark Age) is a name given to a period in the history of the Papacy during the first half of the 10th century, beginning with the installation of Pope Sergius III in 9...
Crescentii
The Crescentii clan (in modern Italian Crescenzi) — if they were an extended family — essentially ruled Rome and controlled the Papacy from the middle of the 10th century until the nearly simultaneous...
Crescentii - Wikipedia
Rudolf of Rheinfelden
Rudolf of Rheinfelden (German: Rudolf von Rheinfelden) (c. 1025 – 15 October 1080) was Duke of Swabia (1057–1079) and brother-in-law of King Henry IV of Germany.In 1077, upon the outbr...
Rudolf of Rheinfelden - Wikipedia