Investiture Controversy
The Investiture Controversy or Investiture Contest was the most significant conflict between Church and state in medieval Europe. In the 11th and 12th centuries, a series of popes challenged the aut...
Investiture Controversy - Wikipedia
Walk to Canossa
The term Walk to Canossa (German, Gang nach Canossa), sometimes called the Humiliation of Canossa (Italian, l'umiliazione di Canossa), refers to the trek of Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV from Speyer to ...
Walk to Canossa - Wikipedia
Concordat of Worms
Concordat of Worms, sometimes called the Pactum Calixtinum by papal historians, was an agreement between Pope Calixtus II and Holy Roman Emperor Henry V on September 23, 1122 near the c...
Concordat of Worms - Wikipedia
Cunibert of Turin
Cunibert of Turin (died 1080) was an Italian bishop. According to Anselm of Besate, Cunibert was a member of the Besate dynasty from Milan. Cunibert is first documented as bishop of Turin at the Counc...
Cunibert of Turin - Wikipedia
Christianization of the Anglo-Saxon Kingdoms
The Christianisation of Anglo-Saxon England was a process spanning the 7th century.It is essentially the result of the Gregorian mission of 597, which was joined by the efforts of the Hiberno-Scotti...
Gebhard (III) of Constance
Gebhard III (circa 1040 – 12 November 1110) was Bishop of Constance and defender of papal rights against imperial encroachments during the Investiture Controversy.He was a son of Berthold II, Duke of ...
Gebhard (III) of Constance - Wikipedia
Papal selection before 1059
There was no fixed process for papal selection before 1059. Popes, the bishops of Rome and the leaders of the Catholic Church, were often appointed by their predecessors or secular rulers. While the p...
Papal selection before 1059 - Wikipedia
Lay abbot
Lay abbot (abbatocomes, abbas laicus, abbas miles) is a name used to designate a layman on whom a king or someone in authority bestowed an abbey as a reward for services rendered; he had charge of the...
Odo of Cambrai
Odo of Tournai, also known as Odoardus or Odo of Orléans (1060–1113), was a Benedictine monk, scholar and bishop of Cambrai (from 1105/6).Odo was born at Orléans. In 1087 he was invited by the canons ...
Odo of Cambrai - Wikipedia
Papal election, 1061
The papal election of 1061 was held on September 30, 1061 in San Pietro in Vincoli ("Saint Peter in Chains") in Rome, following the death of Pope Nicholas II. In accordance with Nicholas II's bull, In...
Papal election, 1061 - Wikipedia
Papal appointment
Papal appointment was a medieval method of selecting a pope. Popes have always been selected by a council of Church fathers, however, Papal selection before 1059 was often characterized by confirmatio...
Papal appointment - Wikipedia
Germanic Christianity
The Germanic peoples underwent gradual Christianization in the course of Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages. By AD 700, England and the Frankish Empire were officially Christian, and by 1100 Ger...
Germanic Christianity - Wikipedia
Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor
Henry IV (German: Heinrich IV; 11 November 1050 – 7 August 1106) ascended to King of the Germans in 1056. From 1084 until his forced abdication in 1105, he was also referred to as the King of the...
Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor - Wikipedia
Gregorian Reform
The Gregorian Reforms were a series of reforms initiated by Pope Gregory VII and the circle he formed in the papal curia, circa 1050–80, which dealt with the moral integrity and independence of the c...
Wezilo
Wezilo, died 1088, was Archbishop of Mainz from 1084-88. He was a leading supporter of the Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV in the Investiture Controversy, and of Antipope Clement III.A priest in Halbersta...
Synod of Worms
The Synod of Worms was an ecclesiastical synod (and Imperial Diet of the Holy Roman Empire) convened by the Emperor Henry IV in January 1076, at Worms, Germany. It was intended to agree a condemnation...
Synod of Worms - Wikipedia
Pope Gregory VII
Pope Saint Gregory VII (Latin: Gregorius VII; c. 1015/1028 – 25 May 1085), born Hildebrand of Sovana (Italian: Ildebrando da Soana), was Pope from 22 April 1073 to his death in 1085.One of the...
Pope Gregory VII - Wikipedia
Libertas ecclesiae
Libertas ecclesiae ("freedom of the Church" in Latin) is the notion of freedom of ecclesiastical authority from secular or the temporal power, which guided the Reform movement which began in the 11th ...
Dictatus papae
Dictatus papae is a compilation of 27 statements of powers arrogated to the Pope that was included in Pope Gregory VII's register under the year 1075. Some historians argue that it was written (or dic...
Dictatus papae - Wikipedia
Atto (archbishop of Milan)
Atto (Italian: Attone) was a Cardinal of the Catholic Church who lived in the 11th century.Born in Rome son of a noble family as a young man in 1062 he was elected by the chapter of the Milan cath...
Atto (archbishop of Milan) - Wikipedia
Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor
Henry V (11 August 1086 – 23 May 1125) was King of Germany (from 1099 to 1125) and Holy Roman Emperor (from 1111 to 1125), the fourth and last ruler of the Salian dynasty. Henry's reign coincided with...
Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor - Wikipedia
Benzo of Alba
Benzo of Alba (died ca. 1089) was an Italian bishop. He was an opponent of Gregorian reform who supported Henry IV of Germany in the Investiture Controversy.Benzo's date of birth is unknown but he was...
Gotofredo da Castiglione
Gotofredo da Castiglione (sometimes given as Gotofredo II to distinguish him from Gotofredo I, Archbishop of Milan) was an Italian antibishop (1070–1075) appointed by Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor to t...
Anselm of Lucca
Saint Anselm of Lucca (1036 – March 18, 1086), called the Younger or Anselm II to distinguish him from his uncle, was an Italian bishop, a prominent figure in the Investiture Controversy and in...
Gothic Christianity
Gothic Christianity refers to the Christian religion of the Goths and sometimes the Gepids, Vandals, and Burgundians, who may have used Wulfila's translation of the Bible into Gothic and shared common...
Gothic Christianity - Wikipedia
Investiture
Investiture, from the Latin (preposition in and verb vestire, 'dress' from vestis 'robe') is a term for the formal installation of an incumbent as the insignia can include the formal dress and adornm...
Crescentii
The Crescentii clan (in modern Italian Crescenzi) — if they were an extended family — essentially ruled Rome and controlled the Papacy from the middle of the 10th century until the nearly simultaneous...
Crescentii - Wikipedia
Hermann of Salm
Herman(n) of Salm (ca. 1035 – 28 September 1088), also known as Herman(n) of Luxembourg, was a Count of Salm and German anti-king of the Holy Roman Empire who ruled from 1081 until his death. Fr...
Hermann of Salm - Wikipedia
History of the Papacy (1048-1257)
The history of the papacy from 1048 to 1257 was marked by conflict between popes and the Holy Roman Emperor, most prominently the Investiture Controversy, a dispute over who—pope or emperor̵...
History of the Papacy (1048-1257) - Wikipedia
Counts of Tusculum
The counts of Tusculum were the most powerful secular noblemen in Latium, near Rome, in the present-day Italy between the 10th and 12th centuries. Several popes and an antipope during the 11th century...
Counts of Tusculum - Wikipedia