Islam and democracy
Islamic democracy refers to a political ideology that seeks to apply Islamic principles to public policy within a democratic framework. In practice, there are three kinds of political systems in the M...
Islam and democracy - Wikipedia
The election of Uthman
Uthman ibn Affan, the third caliph, was chosen by a council meeting in Medina, in northwestern Arabia, in AH 23 (643/644). The second caliph, Umar ibn al-Khattab, was stabbed by an angry Persian slave...
The election of Uthman - Wikipedia
Shura
Shura (Arabic: شورى shūrā) is an Arabic word for "consultation". The Quran and Muhammad encourage Muslims to decide their affairs in consultation with those who will be affected by that decision.Shura...
Ijma
Ijmāʿ (إجماع) is an Arabic term referring to the consensus or agreement of the Muslim community basically on religious issues. Various schools of thought within Islamic jurisprudence may define this ...
Democracy in the Middle East
The measure of the level of democracy in nations throughout the world published by the Freedom House and various other freedom indices, the Middle Eastern countries with the highest scores are Israel,...
Arab Spring
The Arab Spring (Arabic: الربيع العربي‎, ar-rabīˁ al-ˁarabī) was a revolutionary wave of demonstrations and protests (both non-violent and violent), riots, and civil wars in the Arab world t...
Arab Spring - Wikipedia
Secularism in the Middle East
The definition and application of Secularism, especially the place of religion in society, varies among Muslim countries as it does among European countries and the United States. Secularism is oft...
Democracy Index
The Democracy Index is an index compiled by the Economist Intelligence Unit, that measures the state of democracy in 167 countries, of which 166 are sovereign states and 165 are United Nations member...
Democracy Index - Wikipedia