Islam in Somalia
Nearly all people in Somalia are Sunni Muslims. For more than 1400 years, Islam made a great part of Somali society. Practicing Islam reinforces distinctions that further set Somalis apart from their ...
Islam in Somalia - Wikipedia
Adal Sultanate
The Adal Sultanate or Kingdom of Adal (Arabic: عدل ʿadl‎ "justice") was a medieval Muslim Somali, Harari, and Afar state located in the Horn of Africa. It flourished from around 1415 to 157...
Adal Sultanate - Wikipedia
Ajuuraan State
The Ajuran Sultanate (Somali: Saldanadda Ajuuraan, Arabic: سلطنة أجوران‎), also spelled as the Ajuuraan Sultanate, and often simply as Ajuran, was a Somali Muslim empire that ruled over ...
Ajuuraan State - Wikipedia
Amud
Amud or Amoud (Somali: Amuud, Arabic: العامود‎) is an ancient, ruined town in the northwestern Awdal region of Somalia. It was a center of activity during the Golden Age of the Adal Sult...
Amud - Wikipedia
Afgooye
Afgooye (Somali: Afgooye, Arabic: أفجويي‎) is a town in the southeastern Lower Shebelle (Shabellaha Hoose) region of Somalia. It is the center of the Afgooye District.
It is situated...
Afgooye - Wikipedia
Ottoman–Portuguese conflicts (1538–57)
The second Ottoman-Portuguese War (1538–1557) was an armed military conflict between the Portuguese Empire and Ethiopian Empire against the Ottoman Empire, Ajuran Sultanate, and Adal Sultanate, into t...
Ottoman–Portuguese conflicts (1538–57) - Wikipedia
Battle of Gomit
The Battle of Gomit (another name: battle of Ygubba) was fought in 1445 between Ethiopia and Powerful Somali Army under Adal Sultanate. The Ethiopians were led by Zara Yaqob, while the forces of Ada...
Maduna
Maduna (Somali: Maduuna) is an ancient town in the northern Sanaag region of Somalia.
It is situated 90 km southward of Erigavo. The city is said to date from the Golden Age of the medieval Ad...
Badlay ibn Sa'ad ad-Din
Badlay ibn Sa'ad ad-Din II (Arabic: بادلاي بن سعد الدين‎) (also known as Sihab ad-Din Ahmad Badlay, Arwe Badlay - "Badlay the Beast") (died 1445) was a Sultan of the Sultanate of Adal and a ...
Badlay ibn Sa'ad ad-Din - Wikipedia
Barawa
Barawa (Somali: Baraawe, Arabic: مدينة ﺑﺮﺍﻭة‎), also known as Brava, is a port town in the southeastern Lower Shebelle region of Somalia.
In the 16th century, Barawa, which was then ...
Barawa - Wikipedia
Dakkar
Dakkar was an historical town in eastern modern-day Ethiopia.
It was the second capital of the medieval Adal Sultanate, after the polity moved its initial headquarters from Zeila in modern-day nor...
Merca
Merca (Somali: Marka, Arabic: مركة‎) is an ancient port city in the southern Lower Shebelle province of Somalia. Facing the Indian Ocean, it is the main town in the province. It is locat...
Merca - Wikipedia
Ottoman–Portuguese conflicts (1580–89)
The fourth Ottoman-Portuguese Conflicts (1580–1589) was an armed military conflict between the Portuguese Empire against the Ottoman Empire and the Ajuran Empire, in the Indian Ocean.The Ottoman Navy,...
Ottoman–Portuguese conflicts (1580–89) - Wikipedia
Abu Bakr ibn Muhammad
Abu Bakr ibn Muhammad (Arabic: أبو بكر بن محمد‎) (reigned 1525–1526) was a Somali Sultan of the Sultanate of Adal. The historian Richard Pankhurst credits Abu Bakr with founding the city of ...
Abu Bakr ibn Muhammad - Wikipedia
Umar Din
Umar Din (Arabic: عمر الدين‎) (r. 1526–1553) was a Sultan of the Sultanate of Adal. He was the brother of Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi.
Umar Din was made Sultan by his brother, Imam Ahmad ...
Abasa, Somalia
Abasa is an ancient city in the northwestern Awdal region of Somalia.
Abasa is situated 44 km to the north of Borama, on the road from Zeila. A large town, it features numerous ruined structures s...
Jamal ad-Din II
Jamal ad-Din II (Arabic: جمال اد الدين‎) (died 1433) was a Somali Sultan of the Adal Sultanate. He was the youngest son of Sa'ad ad-Din II.
With the help of the Ethiopian defector Harb J...
Zeila
Zeila (Somali: Saylac, Arabic: زيلع‎), also known as Zaila, is a port city in the northwestern Awdal region of Somalia.In antiquity, it was identified with the commercial port of Avalite...
Zeila - Wikipedia
Battle of Wayna Daga
The Battle of Wayna Daga (Amharic for "grape-cultivating altitude") occurred on 21 February 1543 east of Lake Tana in Ethiopia. Led by the Emperor Galawdewos, the combined army of Ethiopian and Portug...
Geledi sultanate
The Sultanate of the Geledi (Somali: Saldanadda Geledi, Arabic: سلطنة غلدي‎) was a Somali kingdom that ruled parts of the Horn of Africa during the late-17th century and 19th century. Th...
Battle of Antukyah
The Battle of Antukyah was fought in 1531 between Adal Sultanate forces under Imam Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi moslem Ethiopian Jihadist and the Abyssinian army under Eslamu. Huntingford has located An...
Battle of Antukyah - Wikipedia
Barakat ibn Umar Din
Barakat ibn Umar Din (Arabic: بركات بن عمر الدين‎) (reigned 16th century) was a Sultan of the Sultanate of Adal and brother of Ali ibn Umar Din. He was the last known member of the Walashma ...
Battle of Sahart
The Battle of Sahart was fought on April 24, 1541 between the army of Emperor Gelawdewos and the forces of Garad Emar, a lieutenant of Imam Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi. According to Ethiopian sources, ...
Battle of the Hill of the Jews
The Battle of the Hill of the Jews (named by Miguel de Castanhoso for a community of Beta Israel who lived there) was a battle fought in Ethiopia in August 1542 between the Portuguese forces of Cristó...
Battle of Shimbra Kure
The Battle of Shimbra Kure ("chickpea swamp") was fought in March of 1529 between the forces of Adal led by Imam Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi, and the Ethiopian army, under Dawit II (Lebna Dengel). The ...
Kismayo
Kismayo (Somali: Kismaayo; Arabic: كيسمايو‎, Kīsmāyū) is a port city in the southern Lower Juba (Jubbada Hoose) province of Somalia. It is the commercial capital of the autonomous Jubala...
Kismayo - Wikipedia
Shams ad-Din ibn Muhammad
Shams ad-Din ibn Muhammad (Arabic: شمس اد الدين بن محمد‎) (reigned 1472–1487) was a Sultan of the Sultanate of Adal and a son of Muhammad ibn Badlay.
During Shams ad-Din's reign, an army...
Bati del Wambara
Bati del Wambara (fl. 1531, literally Victory is her seat) was the daughter of Mahfuz, Emir of Harar in Ethiopia and later Governor of Zeila. She married Imam Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi and accompanie...