Philo
Philo of Alexandria (/ˈfaɪloʊ/; Greek: Φίλων, Philōn; c. 25 BCE – c. 50 CE), also called Philo Judaeus, was a Hellenistic Jewish philosopher who lived in Alexandria, in the Roman province of Egypt.Phi...
Philo - Wikipedia
Hayyim ben Judah ibn Musa
Hayyim ben Judah ibn Musa (Béjar, near Salamanca 1380-1460) was a Jewish physician, chemist, astronomer, and apologist who contended with Nicholas de Lyra. His main work is Magen va-Romah (Shield and ...
Joseph Kimhi
Joseph Ḳimḥi (1105–1170) (Hebrew: יוסף קמחי‎) was a medieval Jewish rabbi and biblical commentator. He was the father of Moses and David Kimhi, and the teacher of Rabbi Menachem Ben Simeon...
Menasseh Ben Israel
Manoel Dias Soeiro (1604 – November 20, 1657), better known by his Hebrew name Menasseh ben Israel (מנשה בן ישראל), also, Menasheh ben Yossef ben Yisrael, also known with the Hebrew acronym, MB"Y...
Menasseh Ben Israel - Wikipedia
Judah Halevi
Judah Halevi (also Yehuda Halevi or ha-Levi; Hebrew: יהודה הלוי; Arabic: يهوذا اللاوي; c. 1075 – 1141) was a Spanish Jewish physician, poet and philosopher. He was born in Spain, either in Toledo or T...
Judah Halevi - Wikipedia
Profiat Duran
Profiat Duran (c. 1350 – c. 1415) (Hebrew: פרופייט דוראן), full Hebrew name Isaac ben Moses ha-Levi; was a physician, philosopher, grammarian, and controversialist in the 14th century. He was la...
Profiat Duran - Wikipedia
Yom-Tov Lipmann-Muhlhausen
Yom-Tov Lipmann ben Solomon Muhlhausen (Hebrew: יום טוב ליפמן מילהאוזן) (Yom-Tov was his religious given name, Lipmann was his secular given name, one of the traditional Ashkenazic vernacular equivale...
Hasdai Crescas
Hasdai ben Judah Crescas ([həzˈðaj ˈβeɲ ʒuˈða ˈkɾeskəs]; Hebrew: חסדאי קרשקש‎; b. Barcelona, c.1340; d. Zaragoza, 1410/1411) was a Spanish-Jewish philosopher and a renowned halakhist (teacher of...
Hasdai Crescas - Wikipedia
Leon of Modena
Leon Modena or Yehudah Aryeh Mi-modena (1571–1648) was a Jewish scholar born in Venice of a notable French family that had migrated to Italy after an expulsion of Jews from France.
He was a precoc...
Nahmanides
Nahmanides [Nah-man-nid-ez] (רבי משה בן נחמן), also known as Rabbi Moses ben Naḥman Girondi, Bonastruc ça (de) Porta and by his acronym Ramban (1194 – 1270), was a leading medieval Jewish scholar, Cat...
Nahmanides - Wikipedia
Isaac of Troki
Isaac ben Abraham of Troki, Karaite scholar and polemical writer (b. Trakai, Grand Duchy of Lithuania, c. 1533; d. Trakai, c. 1594 (or eight years earlier for both dates, according to Jacob Mann’s hyp...
Joseph Albo
Joseph Albo (Hebrew: יוסף אלבו; ca. 1380–1444) was a Jewish philosopher and rabbi who lived in Spain during the fifteenth century, known chiefly as the author of Sefer ha-Ikkarim ("Book of Principles"...
Aristobulus of Paneas
Aristobulus of Paneas (Greek: Ἀριστόβουλος; c. 160 BC) was a Hellenistic Jewish philosopher of the Peripatetic school, though he also used Platonic and Pythagorean concepts. Like his successor, Ph...
Against Apion
Against Apion (Greek: Φλαΐου Ἰωσήπου περὶ ἀρχαιότητος Ἰουδαίων λόγος α and Φλαΐου Ἰωσήπου περὶ ἀρχαιότητος ἀντιρρητικὸς λόγος β; Latin Contra Apionem or In Apionem) was a polemical work written by...
Elijah Montalto
Elijah Montalto (1567 – 1616) was a Marrano physician and polemicist from Paris, who became the personal physician of Maria de Medici.He had been reared as a Christian in Portugal and openly returned ...
Moses ben Jacob of Coucy
Moses ben Jacob of Coucy, also known as Moses Mikkotsi (Hebrew: משה בן יעקב מקוצי‎; Latin: Moses Kotsensis), was a French Tosafist and authority on Halakha (Jewish law). He is best known as ...
Antiquities of the Jews
Antiquities of the Jews (Greek: Ἰουδαϊκὴ ἀρχαιολογία, Ioudaikē archaiologia; Latin: Antiquitates Judaicae), also Judean Antiquities (see Ioudaios) is a twenty-volume historiographical work com...
Antiquities of the Jews - Wikipedia
Philo's Works
Most of what we know of Philo today comes from Eusebius, Hist. Eccles. 2: 2-31, who wrote: "Philo became known as a remarkable man to many, not only among us, but also among those who had sprung from ...
Josephus
Titus Flavius Josephus (/dʒoʊˈsiːfəs/; 37 – c. 100), born Joseph ben Matityahu (Hebrew: יוסף בן מתתיהו, Yosef ben Matityahu), was a first-century Romano-Jewish scholar, historian and hagiographer, who...
Josephus - Wikipedia
Saadia Gaon
Rabbi Sa'adiah ben Yosef Gaon (Arabic: سعيد بن يوسف الفيومي‎ / סעיד בן יוסף אלפיומי Saʻīd bin Yūsuf al-Fayyūmi, Sa'id ibn Yusuf al-Dilasi, Saadia ben Yosef aluf, Sa'id ben Yusuf ra's al-Kul...
Pseudo-Philo
Pseudo-Philo is the name commonly used for a Jewish work in Latin, so called (false Philo) because it was transmitted along with Latin translations of the works of Philo of Alexandria, but is very obv...
Yechiel of Paris
Yechiel ben Joseph of Paris (Jehiel of Paris; called Sire Vives in French (Judeo-French: שיר ויויש) and Vivus Meldensis ("Vives of Meaux") in Latin) was a major Talmudic scholar and Tosafist from nort...
Philo's view of God
Philo (c. 30 BCE – c. 50 CE) was a leading writer of the Hellenistic Jewish community in Alexandria, Egypt. He wrote expansively in Koine Greek on the intersection of philosophy, politics, and r...
Ibn Shaprut
Shem-Tob ben Isaac Shaprut of Tudela (שם טוב אבן שפרוט) (born at Tudela in the middle of the 14th century) was a Spanish Jewish philosopher, physician, and polemicist. He is often confused with the ph...
The War Against the Jews
The War Against the Jews is a book written by Lucy Dawidowicz and published in 1975 (Holt, Rinehart and Winston, ISBN 003013661X). The book researches the Holocaust of the European Jewry during World ...
Judah of Melun
Judah of Melun was a French rabbi, a tosafist of the first half of the 13th century; he was son of the tosafist David of Melun (from the area of Seine-et-Marne). In Perez of Corbeil's tosafot to Baba ...
Disputation of Barcelona
The Disputation of Barcelona (July 20–24, 1263) was a formal ordered medieval debate between representatives of Christianity and Judaism regarding whether or not Jesus was the Messiah. It was held at...
Disputation of Barcelona - Wikipedia
Saul Levi Morteira
Saul Levi Morteira or Mortera (c. 1596, Venice – 10 February 1660, Amsterdam) was a Dutch rabbi of Portuguese descent.
In a Spanish poem Daniel Levi de Barrios speaks of him as being a native...
Saul Levi Morteira - Wikipedia