Laïcité
French secularity (French: laïcité, pronounced [laisite]) is the absence of religious involvement in government affairs as well as absence of government involvement in religious affairs. French secula...
Laïcité - Wikipedia
Separation of religion and state
The separation of church and state is a description for the distance in the relationship between organized religion and the nation state. It may refer to creating a secular state, with or without expl...
Organized secularism
Organized secularism (French: Laïcité organisée, Dutch: georganiseerde vrijzinnigheid) is a French term which is used within Belgium to refer to local associations and organizations which prov...
Organized secularism - Wikipedia
Secularism in Turkey
Secularism in Turkey defines the relationship between religion and state in the country of Turkey. Secularism (or laicity) was first introduced with the 1928 amendment of the Constitution of 1924, whi...
Secularism in Turkey - Wikipedia
Separation of church and state in the United States
"Separation of church and state" (sometimes "wall of separation between church and state") is a phrase used by Thomas Jefferson and others expressing an understanding of the intent and function of the...
Separation of church and state in the United States - Wikipedia
French Enlightenment
The Age of Enlightenment (or simply the Enlightenment, or Age of Reason) is an era from the 1650s to the 1780s in which cultural and intellectual forces in Western Europe emphasized reason, analysis, ...
French Enlightenment - Wikipedia
Irreligion in France
Irreligion and atheism have a long history and a large demographic constitution in France, with the advancement of atheism and the deprecation of theistic religion dating back as far as the French Rev...
Catholic Church and the Spanish Civil War
Catholicism in the Second Spanish Republic was an important area of dispute, and tensions between the Catholic hierarchy and the Republic were apparent from the beginning - the establishment of the Re...
Catholic Church and the Spanish Civil War - Wikipedia
French law on secularity and conspicuous religious symbols in schools
The French law on secularity and conspicuous religious symbols in schools bans wearing conspicuous religious symbols in French public (i.e. government-operated) primary and secondary schools. The law ...
French law on secularity and conspicuous religious symbols in schools - Wikipedia
Religion in France
France is a country where freedom of religion and freedom of thought are guaranteed by virtue of the 1789 Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen. The Republic is based on the principle of...
Louis André
Louis André (28 March 1838, Nuits-Saint-Georges, Côte-d'Or – 18 March 1913) was France's Minister of War from 1900 until 1904. Loyal to the laïque Third Republic, he was anti-Catholic, militantly an...
Louis André - Wikipedia
French ban on face covering
The French ban on face covering (French: Loi interdisant la dissimulation du visage dans l'espace public, "Act prohibiting concealment of the face in public space") is an act of parliament passed ...
French ban on face covering - Wikipedia
Stasi Commission
The French commission Stasi is a commission set up to reflect upon the application of the laïcité principle. Named after the chair Bernard Stasi, ombudsman of the (French) Republic (médiateur de la Ré...
Jules Ferry laws
The Jules Ferry Laws are a set of French Laws which established free education (1881), then mandatory and laic (secular) education (1882). Jules Ferry, a lawyer holding the office of Minister of Publ...
Jules Ferry laws - Wikipedia
Caroline Fourest
Caroline Fourest (born September 19, 1975 in Aix-en-Provence) is a French feminist writer, journalist, columnist (every Saturday in Le Monde until 14 July 2012), radio presenter (every Monday on the F...
Caroline Fourest - Wikipedia
Humanist Party (France)
The Humanist Party (French: Parti humaniste) is a political party in France, and is a member of the Humanist International, and the European Humanist Regional. The candidate for Presidential Elections...
Scottish Enlightenment
The Scottish Enlightenment (Scots: Scots Enlichtenment, Scottish Gaelic: Soilleireachadh na h-Alba) was the period in 18th century Scotland characterised by an outpouring of intellectual and s...
Scottish Enlightenment - Wikipedia
Secular state
A secular state is a concept of secularism, whereby a state or country purports to be officially neutral in matters of religion, supporting neither religion nor irreligion. A secular state also claims...
Secular state - Wikipedia
Politics of Turkey
Politics of Turkey takes place in a framework of a strictly secular parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Prime Minister of Turkey is the head of government, and of a multi-pa...
Politics of Turkey - Wikipedia
Léger Marie Deschamps
Léger Marie Deschamps (1716-1774), Benedictine monk, known under his Benedictine name of Dom Deschamps, was a French philosopher and utopian socialist, who taught a form of modified Spinozism. During ...
Enlightenment in Poland
The ideas of the Age of Enlightenment in Poland were developed later than in the Western Europe, as Polish bourgeoisie was weaker, and szlachta (nobility) culture (Sarmatism) together with the Polish-...
Enlightenment in Poland - Wikipedia
Treatise on Tolerance
The Treatise on Tolerance on the Occasion of the Death of Jean Calas from the Judgment Rendered in Toulouse (Pieces Originales Concernant la Mort des Sieurs Calas det le Jugement rendu a Toulouse) is...
Enlightenment in Spain
Bourbon Spain is the period in the early modern History of Spain from the end of Habsburg rule and the ensuing War of the Spanish Succession over the ascension of a relation of Louis XIV of France to...
Enlightenment in Spain - Wikipedia
1905 French law on the Separation of the Churches and the State
The 1905 French law on the Separation of the Churches and State (French: loi du 9 décembre 1905 concernant la séparation des Églises et de l'État) was passed by the Chamber of Deputies on 9 December 1...
1905 French law on the Separation of the Churches and the State - Wikipedia
Church and state in medieval Europe
Church and state in medieval Europe includes the relationship between the Christian church and the various monarchies and other states in Europe, between the end of Roman authority in the West in the ...
Church and state in medieval Europe - Wikipedia