Laïcité
French secularity (French: laïcité, pronounced [laisite]) is the absence of religious involvement in government affairs as well as absence of government involvement in religious affairs. French secula...
Laïcité - Wikipedia
Separation of religion and state
The separation of church and state is a description for the distance in the relationship between organized religion and the nation state. It may refer to creating a secular state, with or without expl...
Organized secularism
Organized secularism (French: Laïcité organisée, Dutch: georganiseerde vrijzinnigheid) is a French term which is used within Belgium to refer to local associations and organizations which prov...
Organized secularism - Wikipedia
Secularism in Turkey
Secularism in Turkey defines the relationship between religion and state in the country of Turkey. Secularism (or laicity) was first introduced with the 1928 amendment of the Constitution of 1924, whi...
Secularism in Turkey - Wikipedia
Separation of church and state in the United States
"Separation of church and state" (sometimes "wall of separation between church and state") is a phrase used by Thomas Jefferson and others expressing an understanding of the intent and function of the...
Separation of church and state in the United States - Wikipedia
French Enlightenment
The Age of Enlightenment (or simply the Enlightenment, or Age of Reason) is an era from the 1650s to the 1780s in which cultural and intellectual forces in Western Europe emphasized reason, analysis, ...
French Enlightenment - Wikipedia
Irreligion in France
Irreligion and atheism have a long history and a large demographic constitution in France, with the advancement of atheism and the deprecation of theistic religion dating back as far as the French Rev...
French law on secularity and conspicuous religious symbols in schools
The French law on secularity and conspicuous religious symbols in schools bans wearing conspicuous religious symbols in French public (i.e. government-operated) primary and secondary schools. The law ...
French law on secularity and conspicuous religious symbols in schools - Wikipedia
Louis André
Louis André (28 March 1838, Nuits-Saint-Georges, Côte-d'Or – 18 March 1913) was France's Minister of War from 1900 until 1904. Loyal to the laïque Third Republic, he was anti-Catholic, militantly an...
Louis André - Wikipedia
Affaire Des Fiches
L'Affaire des Fiches de délation (“affair of the cards of denunciation”) was a political scandal in France in 1904–1905 in which it was discovered that the militantly anticlerical War Minister u...
Islamic scarf controversy in France
The Islamic scarf controversy in France, referred to there as l'affaire du voile (the veil affair), l'affaire du voile islamique (the Islamic veil affair), and l'affaire du foulard (the scarf affair) ...
Treaty of Tripoli
The Treaty of Tripoli (Treaty of Peace and Friendship between the United States of America and the Bey and Subjects of Tripoli of Barbary) was the first treaty concluded between the United States of ...
Treaty of Tripoli - Wikipedia
French ban on face covering
The French ban on face covering (French: Loi interdisant la dissimulation du visage dans l'espace public, "Act prohibiting concealment of the face in public space") is an act of parliament passed ...
French ban on face covering - Wikipedia
Jules Ferry laws
The Jules Ferry Laws are a set of French Laws which established free education (1881), then mandatory and laic (secular) education (1882). Jules Ferry, a lawyer holding the office of Minister of Publ...
Jules Ferry laws - Wikipedia
Stasi Commission
The French commission Stasi is a commission set up to reflect upon the application of the laïcité principle. Named after the chair Bernard Stasi, ombudsman of the (French) Republic (médiateur de la Ré...
London Debating Societies
Debating societies emerged in London in the early eighteenth century, and were a prominent feature of society until the end of the century. The origins of the debating societies are not certain, but b...
London Debating Societies - Wikipedia
Caroline Fourest
Caroline Fourest (born September 19, 1975 in Aix-en-Provence) is a French feminist writer, journalist, columnist (every Saturday in Le Monde until 14 July 2012), radio presenter (every Monday on the F...
Caroline Fourest - Wikipedia
Humanist Party (France)
The Humanist Party (French: Parti humaniste) is a political party in France, and is a member of the Humanist International, and the European Humanist Regional. The candidate for Presidential Elections...
Léger Marie Deschamps
Léger Marie Deschamps (1716-1774), Benedictine monk, known under his Benedictine name of Dom Deschamps, was a French philosopher and utopian socialist, who taught a form of modified Spinozism. During ...
Enlightenment in Poland
The ideas of the Age of Enlightenment in Poland were developed later than in the Western Europe, as Polish bourgeoisie was weaker, and szlachta (nobility) culture (Sarmatism) together with the Polish-...
Enlightenment in Poland - Wikipedia
Secular Humanism
The philosophy or life stance of secular humanism (alternatively known by some adherents as Humanism, specifically with a capital H to distinguish it from other forms of humanism) embraces human reaso...
Secular Humanism - Wikipedia
Historiography of the Salon
The salons of Early Modern and Revolutionary France played an integral role in the cultural and intellectual development of France. The salons were seen by contemporary writers as a cultural hub, resp...
Historiography of the Salon - Wikipedia
Dechristianisation of France during the French Revolution
The dechristianisation of France during the French Revolution is a conventional description of the results of a number of separate policies, conducted by various governments of France between the star...
Dechristianisation of France during the French Revolution - Wikipedia
Treatise on Tolerance
The Treatise on Tolerance on the Occasion of the Death of Jean Calas from the Judgment Rendered in Toulouse (Pieces Originales Concernant la Mort des Sieurs Calas det le Jugement rendu a Toulouse) is...
Enlightenment in Spain
Bourbon Spain is the period in the early modern History of Spain from the end of Habsburg rule and the ensuing War of the Spanish Succession over the ascension of a relation of Louis XIV of France to...
Enlightenment in Spain - Wikipedia
Scottish Enlightenment
The Scottish Enlightenment (Scots: Scots Enlichtenment, Scottish Gaelic: Soilleireachadh na h-Alba) was the period in 18th century Scotland characterised by an outpouring of intellectual and s...
Scottish Enlightenment - Wikipedia