Language contact
Language contact occurs when two or more languages or varieties interact. The study of language contact is called contact linguistics.Multilingualism has likely been common throughout much of human hi...
Language shift
Language shift, sometimes referred to as language transfer or language replacement or assimilation, is the process whereby a speech community of a language shifts to speaking another language. Often, ...
Stratum (linguistics)
In linguistics, a stratum (Latin for "layer") or strate is a language that influences, or is influenced by another through contact. A substratum or substrate is a language which has lower power or pre...
Contact sign
A contact sign language, or contact sign, is a variety or style of language that arises from contact between a deaf sign language and an oral language (or the written or manually coded form of the ora...
Code-switching
In linguistics, code-switching occurs when a speaker alternates between two or more languages, or language varieties, in the context of a single conversation. Multilinguals—speakers of more than one l...
Interlinguistics
Interlinguistics is the study of various aspects of linguistic communication between people who cannot make themselves understood by means of their different first languages. It is concerned with inve...
Macaronic language
Macaronic refers to text using a mixture of languages, particularly bilingual puns or situations in which the languages are otherwise used in the same context (rather than simply discrete segments of ...
Mixed language
A mixed language is a language that arises through the fusion of usually two source languages, normally in situations of thorough bilingualism (Meakins, 2013), so that it is not possible to classify t...
Tenglish
Tenglish (Telugu: తెంగ్లిష్), a portmanteau of the words Telugu and English, is the combined usage of Telugu and English in one sentence.
This form of code-switching is more commonly seen in u...
Brittonicisms in English
Brittonicisms in English are the linguistic effects in English attributed to the historical influence of Brittonic speakers.The Romano-British inhabitants of England after the Anglo-Saxon influx and p...
List of loanwords in Malay
The Malay language has many loanwords from Sanskrit, Persian, Tamil, Greek, Latin, Portuguese, Dutch, certain Chinese dialects and more recently, Arabic (in particular many religious terms) and Englis...
English as a lingua franca
English as a lingua franca (ELF) is the use of the English language "as a common means of communication for speakers of different first languages". ELF is also "defined functionally by its use in inte...
Singlish
Colloquial Singaporean English, better known as Singlish, is an English-based creole language spoken in Singapore.While English is one of Singapore's official languages, Singlish (a particular dialect...
Singlish - Wikipedia
Kyakhta Russian–Chinese Pidgin
Kyakhta Russian–Chinese Pidgin was a contact language (specifically a pidgin) used by Russian and Chinese traders to communicate during the 18th-early 20th century. The pidgin owes its name to the to...
Esperantology
Esperantology, or Esperanto Studies, is a special Esperanto linguistics whose subjects are word construction, word assembly, word introduction and transcription of umbrella terms and proper names. Esp...
List of loanwords in Malayalam
Loan words in Malayalam, excluding the huge number of words from Sanskrit and Tamil, originated mostly due to the centuries long interactions between the native population of Kerala and the trading (p...
Swenglish
Swenglish is a colloquial term meaning either:
Swedish is characterised by a strong word stress and phrase prosody that differs from that of English. When Swedish prosody is used in English speech...
Swenglish - Wikipedia
Phono-semantic matching
Phono-semantic matching (PSM) is a linguistic term referring to camouflaged borrowing in which a foreign word is matched with a phonetically and semantically similar pre-existent native word/root.It m...
Universal language
Universal language may refer to a hypothetical or historical language spoken and understood by all or most of the world's population. In some contexts, it refers to a means of communication said to b...
Svorsk
Svorsk or Svorska (portmanteau of "svensk(a)", Swedish, and "norsk(a)", Norwegian) is a term describing a mixture of the Swedish and Norwegian languages.The term "svorsk" is used to describe the lang...
Nemadi dialect
The Nemadi are small hunting tribe of eastern Mauritania. Their language is according to some sources a dialect of Hassaniyya, according to others a mixture of Zenaga, Azer and Hassaniyya. The name "...
Béarlachas
Béarlachas ([ˈbʲeːɾˠlˠəxəsˠ]) is Irish for words and phrases used in Irish that are influenced by or stem from the English language. The term comes from Béarla, the Irish word for the English language...
Tatar–Russian code-switching
Tatar–Russian code-switching is a code-switching language of the urban population of Tatarstan, and is spoken predominantly among bilingual Tatars. It is based on the Tatar language, but many spoken f...
Trasianka
Trasianka or trasyanka (Belarusian: трасянка) refers to a mixed form of speech in which Belarusian and Russian elements and structures alternate in rapid succession. There is a similar phenomenon ...