Language families
A language family is a group of languages related through descent from a common ancestor, called the proto-language of that family. The term 'family' reflects the tree model of language origination in...
Language families - Wikipedia
Dialect continuum
A dialect continuum, or dialect area, was defined by Leonard Bloomfield as a range of dialects spoken across some geographical area that differ only slightly between neighboring areas, but as one trav...
Dialect continuum - Wikipedia
Proto-language
A proto-language in the tree model of historical linguistics is a language – usually hypothetical or reconstructed, and unattested – from which a number of attested, or documented, known languages are...
Language isolate
A language isolate, in the absolute sense, is a natural language with no demonstrable genealogical (or "genetic") relationship with other languages, one that has not been demonstrated to descend from ...
Sprachbund
A sprachbund (/ˈsprɑːkbʊnd/; [ˈʃpʁaːxbʊnt], "federation of languages") – also known as a linguistic area, area of linguistic convergence, diffusion area or language crossroads – is a group of language...
Sprachbund - Wikipedia
Mixed language
A mixed language is a language that arises through the fusion of usually two source languages, normally in situations of thorough bilingualism (Meakins, 2013), so that it is not possible to classify t...
Creole language
A creole language, or simply a creole, is a stable natural language that has developed from a pidgin, i.e. a simplified version of a language. Creoles differ from pidgins because creoles have been nat...
Esperanto
Esperanto (/ɛspəˈræntoʊ/ or /-rɑːntoʊ/; [espeˈranto]  listen ) is a constructed international auxiliary language. It is the most widely spoken constructed language in the world. Its name der...
Esperanto - Wikipedia
Japanese dialects
The dialects of the Japanese language fall into two primary clades, Eastern (including Tokyo) and Western (including Kyoto), with the dialects of Kyushu and Hachijō Island often distinguished as addit...
Japanese dialects - Wikipedia
Swiss-German Sign Language
Swiss-German Sign Language (German: Deutschschweizer Gebärdensprache, abbreviated DSGS) is the primary deaf sign language of the German-speaking part of Switzerland. The language was established aroun...
Jacques Gravier
Jacques Gravier (17 May 1651 – 17 April 1708) was a French Jesuit missionary in the New World. He founded the Illinois mission in 1696, where he administered to the several tribes of the territ...
Purian languages
Purian (also Purían) is a pair of extinct languages of eastern Brazil:Coropó was spoken in Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro. Purí was spoken in Espírito Santo and Minas Gerais.Purian is part of the Ma...
Purian languages - Wikipedia
Tuparí language
Tupari is a Tupian language of Brazil.
Urunumacan language
The Chapacuran languages are a nearly extinct Native American language family of South America. There are three living Chapacuran languages, which are spoken in the southeastern Amazon Basin of Brazil...
Urunumacan language - Wikipedia
Waiká language
Waiká, also Yanomámi or Yãroamë, is the most populous of several closely related languages spoken by the Yanomami people in Brazil. Most speakers are monolingual. For a grammatical description, see Ya...
Omaha–Ponca language
Omaha–Ponca is a Siouan language spoken by the Omaha (Umoⁿhoⁿ) people of Nebraska and the Ponca (Paⁿka) people of Oklahoma and Nebraska. The two dialects differ minimally but are considered distinct ...
Manangkari language
Manangkari (Maung language), also known as Naragani, is an extinct Australian aboriginal language once spoken in the Cobourg Peninsula, Northern Territory. Manangkari belongs to the Iwaidjan family of...
Bandjalang language
Bundjalung, or Yugambeh-Bundjalung, is an Australian Indigenous language of the northeastern New South Wales and South-East Queensland coast. Bundjalung consists of a number of dialects, including Yug...
Bandjalang language - Wikipedia
Yogyakarta Sign Language
Indonesian Sign Language, or Bahasa Isyarat Indonesia (BISINDO), is any of several related deaf sign languages of Indonesia, at least on the island of Java. It is based on American Sign Language (perh...
Sinúfana language
Sinúfana (Cenufana) is an extinct, poorly attested, and possibly Chocoan language of Colombia.
Sinúfana language - Wikipedia
Lezgin alphabets
The Lezgin language has been written in several different alphabets over the course of its history. These alphabets have been based on three scripts: Arabic script, Latin script, and Cyrillic script....
Lezgin alphabets - Wikipedia
Kakauhua language
Kakauhua (also rendered Kaukaue, Caucau, Cacahua), or Chono, is a putative language, perhaps Alacalufan, of Chile, known only from toponyms. There is "not a single linguistic fact available" for such ...
Bunuba language
Bunuba (Bunaba, Punuba, Punapa) is an Australian Aboriginal language spoken by some 160 older adults, most of whom live in or near Fitzroy Crossing in Western Australia.
Chinookan languages
Chinookan is a small family of languages spoken in Oregon and Washington along the Columbia River by Chinook peoples.
Chinookan languages consist of three languages with multiple varieties. There ...
Chinookan languages - Wikipedia
Swedish Sign Language family
The Swedish Sign Language family is a language family of sign languages, including Swedish Sign Language, Portuguese Sign Language, and Finnish Sign Language. Swedish SL started about 1800. Wittmann (...
Swedish Sign Language family - Wikipedia
Paumarí language
Paumarí (also Paumari, Purupuru, Kurukuru, Pamari, Purupurú, Pammari, Curucuru, Palmari) is an Arauan language spoken in Brazil by about 700 people. It is spoken by the Paumari Indians, who call their...
Saliban languages
The Saliban (Salivan) languages, also known as Piaroa–Saliban or Saliba–Piaroan, are a small proposed language family of the middle Orinoco Basin, which forms an independent island within an area of V...
Totonacan languages
The Totonacan languages (AKA Totonac–Tepehua languages) are a family of closely related languages spoken by approximately 290,000 Totonac (approx. 280,000) and Tepehua (approx. 10,000) people in the s...
Volta–Congo languages
In the classification of African languages, Volta–Congo is a hypothetical major branch of the Niger–Congo family.Comparative linguistic research by John M. Stewart in the sixties and seventies helped ...
Volta–Congo languages - Wikipedia
Chimuan languages
Chimuan (also Chimúan) or Yuncan is a hypothetical small extinct language family of northern Peru and Ecuador (inter-Andean valley).
Chimuan consisted of three attested languages:All languages are...
Chimuan languages - Wikipedia