Mali Empire
The Mali Empire (Manding: Nyeni; English: Niani), also historically referred to as the Manden Kurufaba, was a Mandinka/Bambara empire in West Africa from c. 1230 to c. 1600. The empire was foun...
Mali Empire - Wikipedia
Ghana Empire
The Ghana Empire (c. 300 until c. 1235) was located in what is now southeastern Mauritania and western Mali. Complex societies had existed in the region since about 1500 BC, an...
Ghana Empire - Wikipedia
Pre-Imperial Mali

There are a few sketchy references to pre-Imperial Mali in written sources. The oldest reference comes from al-Bakri's account of the Western Sudan written in 1068. In this section, he names tw...
Battle of Kirina
The Battle of Kirina, also known as the Battle of Krina (c. 1235), was a confrontation between the Sosso king Sumanguru Kanté and the Mandinka prince Sundiata Keita. Sundiata Keita's forces roundly d...
Keita Dynasty
The Keita Dynasty ruled pre-Imperial and Imperial Mali from the 12th century into the early 17th century. It was a Muslim Dynasty, and its rulers claimed descent from Bilal Keita (later named Bilal ib...
Niani, Mali Empire
The Mali Empire (Manding: Nyeni; English: Niani), also historically referred to as the Manden Kurufaba, was a Mandinka/Bambara empire in West Africa from c. 1230 to c. 1600. The empire was foun...
Niani, Mali Empire - Wikipedia
Gbara
The Gbara (pronounced [ɡ͡baɽa]) or Great Assembly in Old Malinke (now spelled and pronounced as Bara or Gara in those Manding languages without /gb/) was the deliberative body of the Mali Empire, whic...
Kouroukan Fouga
According to the Epic of Sundiata, Kouroukan Fouga or Kurukan Fuga was the constitution of the Mali Empire created after the Battle of Krina (1235) by an assembly of nobles to create a government for...
Military history of the Mali Empire
The military history of the Mali Empire is that of the armed forces of the Mali Empire, which dominated Western Africa from the mid 13th to the late 15th century. The military culture of the empire’s...
Military history of the Mali Empire - Wikipedia
Naré Maghann Konaté
Naré Maghann Konaté (died c. 1218) was a 12th-century faama (king) of the Mandinka people, in what is today Mali. He was the father of Sundiata Keita, founder of the Mali Empire, and a character in t...
The Narrative of Robert Adams
First published in 1816, The Narrative of Robert Adams is the story of the adventures of Robert Adams, an American sailor who survived shipwreck off the coast of Africa and slavery under brutal condit...
The Narrative of Robert Adams - Wikipedia
Maghan III (mansa)
Maghan III, also known as Mahmud I, was mansa of the Mali Empire from 1390 to about 1400. He assumed the throne following the usurper Sandaki, who ruled for only two years.
Maghan III (mansa) - Wikipedia
History of the Soninke people
The Soninke share a very conservative culture, inherited by the structural social organization from their forefather founders of the Ghana Empire (not to be confused with modern day Ghana, which adop...
History of the Soninke people - Wikipedia
Sidi Yahya Mosque
Sidi Yahya is a mosque and madrassa of Timbuktu in the West African country of Mali which finished construction in 1440. Sidi Yahya along with Djinguereber and Sankore compose the "University" of Timb...
Sidi Yahya Mosque - Wikipedia
Mahmud IV (mansa)
Maud IV (also known as Mansa Mamadou III, Mali Mansa Mamadou and Niani Mansa Mamadou) was the last great emperor of the Mali Empire according to the Tarikh al-Sudan. Prior to his rule there was a vaca...
Jews of Bilad el-Sudan
Jews of the Bilad al-Sudan (אַהַל יַהוּדּ בִּלַדּ אַל סוּדָּן, Judeo-Arabic) describes West African Jewish communities who were connected to known Jewish communities from the Middle East, North Africa...
Jews of Bilad el-Sudan - Wikipedia
Sidi Mahmoud Ben Amar
Sidi Mahmoud Ben Amar (also known as Sidi Amar, Cadi Sidi Mahmoud, or Sidi Mahmoud) is a revered Muslim scholar who is one of the 333 Sufi saints said to be buried in Timbuktu. The tomb of Sidi Mahmou...
Djinguereber Mosque
The Djinguereber Mosque (Masjid) in Timbuktu, Mali is a famous learning center of Mali built in 1327, and cited as Djingareyber or Djingarey Ber in various languages. Its design is accredited to Abu ...
Djinguereber Mosque - Wikipedia
Uli I of Mali
Mansa Uli (French: Ouli), also known as Ali or Wali in Arab sources, was the second mansa of the Mali Empire.Born under the name Yérélinkon, he was the only biological son of the legendary Sundiat...
Khalifa (mansa)
Mansa Khalifa was the fourth mansa of the Mali Empire. He ruled the empire for only a year from 1274 to his assassination in 1275.Mansa Khalifa or Khalifah was an adopted son of the founder of the Mal...
Mahmud III (mansa)
Mansa Mahmud III, also known as Mamadou II, was mansa ("king of kings") of the Mali Empire from 1496 to 1559. He was the last mansa to rule from Niani and is known as the mansa under which Mali suffer...
Mahmud III (mansa) - Wikipedia
Gao (mansa)
Gao was Mansa of the Mali Empire from 1300 to 1305.Mansa Gao was one of two sons of Kolonkan. Kolonkan was a sister of the legendary founder Sundiata Keita. The mansa assumed the throne following the...
Mari Djata II of Mali
Mari Diata II was mansa of the Mali Empire from 1360 to 1374.Son of Mansa Maghan, he assumed the throne following the brief 1360 reign of Mansa Kankan Musa I's nephew Kassa. Tunisian historian Ibn Kh...
Musa III of Mali
Mansa Musa III, also known as Foamed Musa or Sérébandjougou was the 13th mansa (emperor) of the Mali Empire. Little is known about him or his reign other than it started around the middle of the 15th...
Sassouma Bereté
Sassouma Bereté (or Berete) was the first wife of the 13th century King of Mali - Naré Maghann Konaté (the father of Sundiata Keita). Everything that is known about Sassouma came from the Epic of Sund...
Abu Bakr (mansa)
Abu Bakr, also known as Abubakari I or Manding Bory, was the fifth Mansa (Emperor) of the Mali Empire, reigning from 1275 to 1285.He was born Manding Bory to mother Namandjé, third wife to Naré Maghan...
Uli II (mansa)
Mansa Uli II (French: "Ouli II"), also known as Gbèré, was the twentieth mansa ("king of kings") of the Mali Empire. He ruled over the realm during the latter half of the 15th century.According to th...
Mohammed ibn Gao (mansa)
Mansa Mohammed ibn Gao was mansa of the Mali Empire from 1305 to 1310.Mansa Mohammed ibn Gao, as his name suggests, was the son of his predecessor, Mansa Gao. He inherited the throne following his fat...