Mereology
In philosophy and mathematical logic, mereology (from the Greek μέρος, root: μερε(σ)-, "part" and the suffix -logy "study, discussion, science") is the study of parts and the wholes they form. Wherea...
Meronymy
Meronymy (from Greek μέρος meros, "part" and ὄνομα onoma, "name") is a semantic relation specific to linguistics, distinct from the similar meronomy. A meronym denotes a constituent part of, or a mem...
Causality
Causality (also referred to as causation) is the relation between an event (the cause) and a second event (the effect), where the second event is understood as a physical consequence of the first.In c...
Causality - Wikipedia
Holism
Holism (from Greek ὅλος holos "all, whole, entire") is the idea that natural systems (physical, biological, chemical, social, economic, mental, linguistic, etc.) and their properties should be viewed ...
Holism - Wikipedia
Property (philosophy)
In modern philosophy and mathematics, a property is a characteristic of an object; a red object is said to have the property of redness. The property may be considered a form of object in its own righ...
Property (philosophy) - Wikipedia
Holistic community
A holistic community (also referred to as closed or unitary) is one where the species within the community are interdependent on each other for keeping balance and stability of the system. This is a t...
Two Dogmas of Empiricism
Two Dogmas of Empiricism is a paper by analytic philosopher Willard Van Orman Quine published in 1951. According to City University of New York professor of philosophy Peter Godfrey-Smith, this "pape...
Mereological essentialism
Mereological essentialism is a philosophical thesis about the relationship between wholes and their parts, and the conditions for their persistence. It holds the view that objects have their parts ess...
Mereotopology
In formal ontology, a branch of metaphysics, and in ontological computer science, mereotopology is a first-order theory, embodying mereological and topological concepts, of the relations among wholes,...
Mereological nihilism
Mereological nihilism (also called compositional nihilism, or rarely simply nihilism) is the position that objects with proper parts do not exist (not only objects in space, but also objects existing ...
Questionable cause
The questionable cause – also known as causal fallacy, false cause, or non causa pro causa ("non-cause for cause" in Latin) – is a category of informal fallacies in which a cause is incorrectly identi...
Meronomy
A meronomy or partonomy is a type of hierarchy that deals with part–whole relationships, in contrast to a taxonomy whose categorisation is based on discrete sets. These conceptual structures are used ...
Simple (philosophy)
In contemporary mereology, a simple is any thing that has no proper parts. Sometimes the term "atom" is used, although in recent years the term "simple" has become the standard. Simples are to be cont...
Non-wellfounded mereology
In philosophy, specifically metaphysics, mereology is the study of parthood relationships. In mathematics and formal logic, wellfoundedness prohibits for any x.Thus non-wellfounded mereology tre...
Non-wellfounded mereology - Wikipedia
Probabilistic causation
Probabilistic causation designates a group of philosophical theories that aim to characterize the relationship between cause and effect using the tools of probability theory. The central idea behind t...
Gunk (mereology)
In mereology, an area of philosophical logic, the term gunk applies to any whole whose parts all have further proper parts. That is, a gunky object is not made of indivisible atoms:If point-sized obje...
Causation (law)
Causation is the "causal relationship between conduct and result". That is to say that causation provides a means of connecting conduct with a resulting effect, typically an injury. In criminal law, ...
Property dualism
Property dualism describes a category of positions in the philosophy of mind which hold that, although the world is constituted of just one kind of substance — the physical kind — there exist two dist...
Property dualism - Wikipedia
Intrinsic and extrinsic properties (philosophy)
An intrinsic property is a property that an object or a thing has of itself, independently of other things, including its context. An extrinsic (or relational) property is a property that depends on ...
Counterfactual conditional
A counterfactual conditional abbreviated CF, is a subjunctive conditional containing an if-clause which is contrary to fact.
The difference between indicative and counterfactual conditionals, in a...
Part–whole theory
Part–whole theory is the name of a loose collection of historical theories, all informal and nearly all unwitting, relating wholes to their parts via inclusion. Part–whole theory has been overtaken by...
Complementary holism
Complementary holism is a social theory or conceptual framework proposed by Michael Albert and Robin Hahnel, that sees all societies as consisting of a Human Center and Institutional Boundaries, and t...
Whitehead's point-free geometry
In mathematics, point-free geometry is a geometry whose primitive ontological notion is region rather than point. Two axiomatic systems are set out below, one grounded in mereology, the other in mereo...
Whitehead's point-free geometry - Wikipedia
Two-state vector formalism
The two-state vector formalism (TSVF) is a description of quantum mechanics in terms of a causal relation in which the present is caused by quantum states of the past and of the future taken in combin...
Transcendental humanism
Transcendental Humanism, in Philosophy, considers what is proper treatment of humans outside of nature and decides they have inherent rights, simply from being human. It is also positive that man is c...
Transfer entropy
Transfer entropy is a non-parametric statistic measuring the amount of directed (time-asymmetric) transfer of information between two random processes. Transfer entropy from a process X to another pro...
Causal model
A causal model is an abstract model that describes the causal mechanisms of a system. The model must express more than correlation because correlation does not imply causation.Judea Pearl defines a c...
Four causes
"Four causes" refers to an influential principle in Aristotelian thought whereby causes of change or movement are categorized into four fundamental types of answer to the question "why?". Aristotle wr...
Karma
Karma (Sanskrit: कर्म; [ˈkərmə]; Pali: kamma) means action, work or deed; it also refers to the principle of causality where intent and actions of an individual influence the future of that in...
Karma - Wikipedia