Microbial metabolism
Microbial metabolism is the means by which a microbe obtains the energy and nutrients (e.g. carbon) it needs to live and reproduce. Microbes use many different types of metabolic strategies and speci...
Microbial metabolism - Wikipedia
The World’s Nitrogen Fixation, Explained
Yale University scientists may have cracked a part of the chemical code for one of the most basic, yet mysterious, processes in the natural world — nature’s ability to transform nitrogen from the air ...
First Animals Found That Live Without Oxygen
In the muck of the deep Mediterranean seafloor, scientists have found the first multicellular animals capable of surviving in an entirely oxygen-free environment. Some types of bacteria and other sing...
Methylotroph
Methylotrophs are a diverse group of microorganisms that can use reduced one-carbon compounds, such as methanol or methane, as the carbon source for their growth; and multi-carbon compounds that cont...
Syntrophy
Syntrophy, Synthrophy, Cross-feeding, or Cross feeding [Greek syn meaning together, trophe meaning nourishment] is the phenomenon that one species lives off the products of another species. In this as...
Anaerobic organism
An anaerobic organism or anaerobe is any organism that does not require oxygen for growth. It may react negatively or even die if oxygen is present. An anaerobic organism may be unicellular (e.g. prot...
Denitrification
Denitrification is a microbially facilitated process of nitrate reduction (performed by a large group of heterotrophic facultative anaerobic bacteria) that may ultimately produce molecular nitrogen (N...
Sulfate-reducing bacteria
Sulfate-reducing bacteria are those bacteria that can obtain energy by oxidizing organic compounds or molecular hydrogen (H2) while reducing sulfate (SO2−4) to hydrogen sulfide (H2S). In a sense, thes...
Sulfate-reducing bacteria - Wikipedia
Acetogenesis
Acetogenesis is a process through which acetate is produced from CO2 and an electron source (e.g., H2, CO, formate, etc.) by anaerobic bacteria via the reductive acetyl-CoA or Wood-Ljungdahl pathway. ...
Lithotroph
Lithotrophs are a diverse group of organisms using inorganic substrate (usually of mineral origin) to obtain reducing equivalents for use in biosynthesis (e.g., carbon dioxide fixation) or energy cons...
Hydrogen oxidizing bacteria
Hydrogen oxidizing bacteria, or sometimes Knallgas-bacteria, are bacteria which oxidize hydrogen. See microbial metabolism (hydrogen oxidation). These bacteria include Hydrogenobacter thermophilus, Hy...
Sulfur-reducing bacteria
Sulfur-reducing bacteria (SRB) get their energy by reducing elemental sulfur to hydrogen sulfide. They couple this reaction with the oxidation of acetate, succinate or other organic compounds.Several ...
Acidophiles in acid mine drainage
The outflow of acidic liquids and other pollutants from mines is often catalysed by acid-loving microorganisms; these are the acidophiles in acid mine drainage. Acidophiles are not just present in ex...
Acidophiles in acid mine drainage - Wikipedia
Nitrobacteraceae
Nitrobacteraceae is a family of Alphaproteobacteria. They are gram-negative and aerobic.The bacteria of this family derive their energy from oxidizing ammonia to nitrite, or by oxidizing nitrite to ni...
Anammox
Anammox, an abbreviation for ANaerobic AMMonium OXidation, is a globally important microbial process of the nitrogen cycle. The bacteria mediating this process were identified in 1999, and at the time...
Anammox - Wikipedia
Nitrogen fixation
Nitrogen fixation is a process in which nitrogen (N2) in the atmosphere is converted into ammonium (NH4). Atmospheric nitrogen or molecular nitrogen (N2) is relatively inert: it does not easily react...
Nitrogen fixation - Wikipedia
Phototrophic bacteria
Phototrophic prokaryotes are bacteria or archaea that obtain energy from light. Phototrophic prokaryotes may utilize a variety of carbon sources, depending on the metabolic pathways available to the b...
Lipophilic bacteria
Lipophilic bacteria (fat-liking bacteria) are bacteria that may proliferate in lipids.
They include lipophilic corynebacteria.Propionibacterium acnes is a type of liphophilic bacteria, releasing f...
The World’s Nitrogen Fixation, Explained
Yale University scientists may have cracked a part of the chemical code for one of the most basic, yet mysterious, processes in the natural world — nature’s ability to transform nitrogen from the air ...
Fermentation (biochemistry)
Fermentation is a metabolic process that converts sugar to acids, gases, and/or alcohol. It occurs in yeast and bacteria, but also in oxygen-starved muscle cells, as in the case of lactic acid ferment...
Fermentation (biochemistry) - Wikipedia
First Animals Found That Live Without Oxygen
In the muck of the deep Mediterranean seafloor, scientists have found the first multicellular animals capable of surviving in an entirely oxygen-free environment. Some types of bacteria and other sing...
Great Oxygenation Event
The Great Oxygenation Event (GOE), also called the Oxygen Catastrophe, Oxygen Crisis, Oxygen Holocaust, Oxygen Revolution, or Great Oxidation, was the biologically induced appearance of dioxygen (O2)...
Great Oxygenation Event - Wikipedia
Chloroflexi (phylum)
The Chloroflexi or Chlorobacteria are a phylum of bacteria containing isolates with a diversity of phenotypes including members that are aerobic thermophiles, which use oxygen and grow well in high te...
Cellular respiration
Cellular respiration is the set of metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and then ...
Cellular respiration - Wikipedia
Fenna-Matthews-Olson complex
The Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) complex is a water soluble complex and was the first pigment-protein complex (PPC) to be structure analyzed by x-ray spectroscopy. It appears in green sulfur bacteria an...
Fenna-Matthews-Olson complex - Wikipedia
Herpetosiphonaceae
Herpetosiphonaceae is a family of bacteria in the order Herpetosiphonales.
Anaerobic infection
Anaerobic infections are caused by anaerobic bacteria. Anaerobic bacteria do not grow on solid media in room air (0.04% carbon dioxide and 21% oxygen); facultative anaerobic bacteria can grow in the p...
Sulfur metabolism
Sulfur is metabolized by all organisms, from bacteria and archaea to plants and animals. Sulfur is reduced or oxidized by organisms in a variety of forms. The element is present in proteins, nucleic ...
Anaerobic respiration
Anaerobic respiration is a form of respiration using electron acceptors other than oxygen. Although oxygen is not used as the final electron acceptor, the process still uses a respiratory electron tra...
Anaerobic respiration - Wikipedia