Model of computation
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Turing machine
Multi-string Turing machine with input and output
A Turing machine is a hypothetical device that manipulates symbols on a strip of tape according to a table of rules. Despite its simplicity, a Turing machine can be adapted to simulate the logic of an...
Multi-string Turing machine with input and output - Wikipedia
Turing machine equivalents
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Register machine
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Post-Turing machine
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Universal Turing machine
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Computational complexity theory
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Church-Turing thesis
Multi-string Turing machine with input and output - Wikipedia
Turing machine equivalents
A Turing machine is a hypothetical device with an infinite memory capacity, first conceived by Alan Turing in 1936. The machine manipulates symbols on a potentially infinite strip of tape according to...
Turing machine equivalents - Wikipedia
Register machine
In mathematical logic and theoretical computer science a register machine is a generic class of abstract machines used in a manner similar to a Turing machine. All the models are Turing equivalent.
Post-Turing machine
A Post–Turing machine is a "program formulation" of an especially simple type of Turing machine, comprising a variant of Emil Post's Turing-equivalent model of computation described below. (Post's mo...
Post-Turing machine - Wikipedia
Universal Turing machine
In computer science, a universal Turing machine (UTM) is a Turing machine that can simulate an arbitrary Turing machine on arbitrary input. The universal machine essentially achieves this by reading b...
Computational complexity theory
Computational complexity theory is a branch of the theory of computation in theoretical computer science and mathematics that focuses on classifying computational problems according to their inherent ...
Church-Turing thesis
In computability theory, the Church–Turing thesis (also known as the Turing–Church thesis, the Church–Turing conjecture, Church's thesis, Church's conjecture, and Turing's thesis) is a hypothesis ("t...
Partition problem
In computer science, the partition problem is the task of deciding whether a given multiset S of positive integers can be partitioned into two subsets S1 and S2 such that the sum of the numbers in S1 ...
Partition problem - Wikipedia
FO (complexity)
In descriptive complexity, a branch of computational complexity, FO is a complexity class of structures which can be recognized by formulas of first-order logic, and also equals the complexity class ...
NP-hard
NP-hard (Non-deterministic Polynomial-time hard), in computational complexity theory, is a class of problems that are, informally, "at least as hard as the hardest problems in NP". More precisely, a ...
AC0
AC is a complexity class used in circuit complexity. It is the smallest class in the AC hierarchy, and consists of all families of circuits of depth O(1) and polynomial size, with unlimited-fanin AND...
Nurikabe
The nurikabe (ぬりかべ) is a Yōkai, or spirit, from Japanese folklore. It manifests as a wall that impedes or misdirects walking travelers at night. Trying to go around is futile as it extends itself for...
Nurikabe - Wikipedia
FP (complexity)
In computational complexity theory, the complexity class FP is the set of function problems which can be solved by a deterministic Turing machine in polynomial time; it is the function problem version...
Nonogram
Nonograms, also known as Hanjie or Griddlers, are picture logic puzzles in which cells in a grid must be colored or left blank according to numbers at the side of the grid to reveal a hidden picture. ...
Nonogram - Wikipedia
Vertex cycle cover
In mathematics, a vertex cycle cover (commonly called simply cycle cover) of a graph G is a set of cycles which are subgraphs of G and contain all vertices of G. If the cycles of the cover have no ver...
Steiner tree problem
The Steiner tree problem, or the minimum Steiner tree problem, named after Jakob Steiner, is a problem in combinatorial optimization, which may be formulated in a number of settings, with the common p...
Co-RE
In computability theory and computational complexity theory, RE (recursively enumerable) is the class of decision problems for which a 'yes' answer can be verified by a Turing machine in a finite amou...
Probabilistically checkable proof
In computational complexity theory, a probabilistically checkable proof (PCP) is a type of proof that can be checked by a randomized algorithm using a bounded amount of randomness and reading a bounde...
Lupanov representation
Lupanov's (k, s)-representation, named after Oleg Lupanov, is a way of representing Boolean circuits so as to show that the reciprocal of the Shannon effect. Shannon had showed that almost all Bo...
Lupanov representation - Wikipedia
Complexity class
In computational complexity theory, a complexity class is a set of problems of related resource-based complexity. A typical complexity class has a definition of the form:For example, the class NP is t...
Word problem (mathematics)
In mathematics and computer science, a word problem for a set S with respect to a system of finite encodings of its elements is the algorithmic problem of deciding whether two given representatives re...
Pseudorandom generator theorem
In computational complexity theory and cryptography, the existence of pseudorandom generators is related to the existence of one-way functions through a number of theorems, collectively referred to as...
Metric k-center
In graph theory, the metric k-center or metric facility location problem is a combinatorial optimization problem studied in theoretical computer science. Given n cities with specified distances, one ...
RSA problem
In cryptography, the RSA problem summarizes the task of performing an RSA private-key operation given only the public key. The RSA algorithm raises a message to an exponent, modulo a composite number ...
Probabilistic Turing machine
In computability theory, a probabilistic Turing machine is a non-deterministic Turing machine which randomly chooses between the available transitions at each point according to some probability distr...
Logical depth
Logical depth is a measure of complexity devised by Charles H. Bennett based on the computational complexity of an algorithm that can recreate a given piece of information. It differs from Kolmogorov ...
Smoothed analysis
Smoothed analysis is a way of measuring the complexity of an algorithm. It gives a more realistic analysis of the practical performance of the algorithm, such as its running time, than using worst-ca...
Quantum computer
Quantum computing studies theoretical computation systems (quantum computers) that make direct use of quantum-mechanical phenomena, such as superposition and entanglement, to perform operations on dat...
SC (complexity)
In computational complexity theory, SC (Steve's Class, named after Stephen Cook) is the complexity class of problems solvable by a deterministic Turing machine in polynomial time (class P) and polylog...
The Complexity of Songs
"The Complexity of Songs" was a journal article published by computer scientist Donald Knuth in 1977, as an in-joke about computational complexity theory. The article capitalizes on the tendency of po...