Model of computation
Multitape turing machine
A Multi-tape Turing machine is like an ordinary Turing machine with several tapes. Each tape has its own head for reading and writing. Initially the input appears on tape 1, and the others start out b...
Turing machine equivalents
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Register machine
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Post-Turing machine
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Universal Turing machine
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Computational complexity theory
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Church-Turing thesis
Turing machine equivalents
A Turing machine is a hypothetical device with an infinite memory capacity, first conceived by Alan Turing in 1936. The machine manipulates symbols on a potentially infinite strip of tape according to...
Turing machine equivalents - Wikipedia
Register machine
In mathematical logic and theoretical computer science a register machine is a generic class of abstract machines used in a manner similar to a Turing machine. All the models are Turing equivalent.
Post-Turing machine
A Post–Turing machine is a "program formulation" of an especially simple type of Turing machine, comprising a variant of Emil Post's Turing-equivalent model of computation described below. (Post's mo...
Post-Turing machine - Wikipedia
Universal Turing machine
In computer science, a universal Turing machine (UTM) is a Turing machine that can simulate an arbitrary Turing machine on arbitrary input. The universal machine essentially achieves this by reading b...
Computational complexity theory
Computational complexity theory is a branch of the theory of computation in theoretical computer science and mathematics that focuses on classifying computational problems according to their inherent ...
Church-Turing thesis
In computability theory, the Church–Turing thesis (also known as the Turing–Church thesis, the Church–Turing conjecture, Church's thesis, Church's conjecture, and Turing's thesis) is a hypothesis ("t...
Light Up
Light Up may refer to:
NP-hard
NP-hard (Non-deterministic Polynomial-time hard), in computational complexity theory, is a class of problems that are, informally, "at least as hard as the hardest problems in NP". More precisely, a ...
AC0
AC is a complexity class used in circuit complexity. It is the smallest class in the AC hierarchy, and consists of all families of circuits of depth O(1) and polynomial size, with unlimited-fanin AND...
Nurikabe
The nurikabe (ぬりかべ) is a Yōkai, or spirit, from Japanese folklore. It manifests as a wall that impedes or misdirects walking travelers at night. Trying to go around is futile as it extends itself for...
Nurikabe - Wikipedia
FP (complexity)
In computational complexity theory, the complexity class FP is the set of function problems which can be solved by a deterministic Turing machine in polynomial time; it is the function problem version...
NP-equivalent
In computational complexity theory, the complexity class NP-equivalent is the set of function problems that are both NP-easy and NP-hard. NP-equivalent is the analogue of NP-complete for function pro...
Nonogram
Nonograms, also known as Hanjie or Griddlers, are picture logic puzzles in which cells in a grid must be colored or left blank according to numbers at the side of the grid to reveal a hidden picture. ...
Nonogram - Wikipedia
Vertex cycle cover
In mathematics, a vertex cycle cover (commonly called simply cycle cover) of a graph G is a set of cycles which are subgraphs of G and contain all vertices of G. If the cycles of the cover have no ver...
Decision tree model
In computational complexity and communication complexity theories the decision tree model is the model of computation or communication in which an algorithm or communication process is considered to ...
Majority function
In Boolean logic, the majority function (also called the median operator) is a function from n inputs to one output. The value of the operation is false when n/2 or more arguments are false, and true...
Steiner tree problem
The Steiner tree problem, or the minimum Steiner tree problem, named after Jakob Steiner, is a problem in combinatorial optimization, which may be formulated in a number of settings, with the common p...
Co-RE
In computability theory and computational complexity theory, RE (recursively enumerable) is the class of decision problems for which a 'yes' answer can be verified by a Turing machine in a finite amou...
Probabilistically checkable proof
In computational complexity theory, a probabilistically checkable proof (PCP) is a type of proof that can be checked by a randomized algorithm using a bounded amount of randomness and reading a bounde...
Pseudorandom generator theorem
In computational complexity theory and cryptography, the existence of pseudorandom generators is related to the existence of one-way functions through a number of theorems, collectively referred to as...
Fifteen puzzle
The 15-puzzle (also called Gem Puzzle, Boss Puzzle, Game of Fifteen, Mystic Square and many others) is a sliding puzzle that consists of a frame of numbered square tiles in random order with one tile ...
Fifteen puzzle - Wikipedia
Metric k-center
In graph theory, the metric k-center or metric facility location problem is a combinatorial optimization problem studied in theoretical computer science. Given n cities with specified distances, one ...
RSA problem
In cryptography, the RSA problem summarizes the task of performing an RSA private-key operation given only the public key. The RSA algorithm raises a message to an exponent, modulo a composite number ...
Generalized assignment problem
In applied mathematics, the maximum generalized assignment problem is a problem in combinatorial optimization. This problem is a generalization of the assignment problem in which both tasks and agent...
NSPACE
In computational complexity theory, non-deterministic space or NSPACE is the computational resource describing the memory space for a non-deterministic Turing machine. It is the non-deterministic cou...
Probabilistic Turing machine
In computability theory, a probabilistic Turing machine is a non-deterministic Turing machine which randomly chooses between the available transitions at each point according to some probability distr...
Logical depth
Logical depth is a measure of complexity devised by Charles H. Bennett based on the computational complexity of an algorithm that can recreate a given piece of information. It differs from Kolmogorov ...
Smoothed analysis
Smoothed analysis is a way of measuring the complexity of an algorithm. It gives a more realistic analysis of the practical performance of the algorithm, such as its running time, than using worst-ca...
Kakuro
Kakuro or Kakkuro (Japanese: カックロ) is a kind of logic puzzle that is often referred to as a mathematical transliteration of the crossword. Kakuro puzzles are regular features in many math-and-logi...
N-body problem
In physics, the n-body problem is the problem of predicting the individual motions of a group of celestial objects interacting with each other gravitationally. Solving this problem has been motivated...
N-body problem - Wikipedia