Papal States
The Papal States were territories in the Italian Peninsula under the sovereign direct rule of the pope, from the 700s until 1870. They were among the major states of Italy from roughly the eighth cent...
Papal States - Wikipedia
Exarchate of Ravenna
The Exarchate of Ravenna or of Italy was a center of Byzantine (East Roman) power in Italy, from the end of the 6th century to 751, when the last exarch was put to death by the Lombards.
Ravenna b...
Exarchate of Ravenna - Wikipedia
Donation of Sutri
The Donation of Sutri was an agreement reached at Sutri by Liutprand, King of the Lombards and Pope Gregory II in 728. At Sutri, the two reached an agreement by which the city and some hill towns in L...
Donation of Pepin
The "Donation of Pepin", the first in 754, and second in 756, provided a legal basis for the formal organizing of the Papal States, which inaugurated papal temporal rule over civil authorities. The D...
Donation of Pepin - Wikipedia
Patrimony of Saint Peter
The expression Patrimonium Sancti Petri, or shorter Patrimonium Petri, meaning 'Patrimony of (Saint) Peter', originally designated the landed possessions and revenues of various kinds that belonged to...
Saeculum obscurum
Saeculum obscurum (Latin: the Dark Age) is a name given to a period in the history of the Papacy during the first half of the 10th century, beginning with the installation of Pope Sergius III in 9...
Investiture Controversy
The Investiture Controversy or Investiture Contest was the most significant conflict between Church and state in medieval Europe. In the 11th and 12th centuries, a series of popes challenged the aut...
Guelphs and Ghibellines
The Guelphs and Ghibellines (English pronunciation: [gwɛlfs], [gɪbəliːnz] or [gɪbəlaɪnz]; Italian: guelfi e ghibellini) were factions supporting the Pope and the Holy Roman Emperor, respectively, ...
Guelphs and Ghibellines - Wikipedia
War of the Eight Saints
The War of the Eight Saints (1375–1378) was a war between Pope Gregory XI and a coalition of Italian city-states led by Florence, which contributed to the end of the Avignon Papacy.
The causes of ...
War of the Eight Saints - Wikipedia
War of Ferrara
The War of Ferrara (also known as the Salt War, Italian: Guerra del Sale) was fought in 1482–1484 between Ercole I d'Este, duke of Ferrara, and the Papal forces mustered by Ercole's personal nemesis, ...
War of Ferrara - Wikipedia
Italian War of 1494-1498
The First Italian War, sometimes referred to as the Italian War of 1494 or Charles VIII's Italian War, was the opening phase of the Italian Wars. The war pitted Charles VIII of France, who had initia...
Italian War of 1494-1498 - Wikipedia
War of Urbino
The War of Urbino (1517) was a secondary episode of the Italian Wars.The conflict ensued after the end of the War of the League of Cambrai (1508–16), when Francesco Maria I della Rovere decided to tak...
Italian War of 1521-1526
The Italian War of 1521–26, sometimes known as the Four Years' War, was a part of the Italian Wars. The war pitted Francis I of France and the Republic of Venice against the Holy Roman Emperor Charle...
Italian War of 1521-1526 - Wikipedia
War of the League of Cognac
The War of the League of Cognac (1526–30) was fought between the Habsburg dominions of Charles V—primarily Spain and the Holy Roman Empire—and the League of Cognac, an alliance including France, Pope ...
War of the League of Cognac - Wikipedia
Sack of Rome (1527)
The Sack of Rome on 6 May 1527 was a military event carried out by the mutinous troops of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor in Rome, then part of the Papal States. It marked a crucial imperial victory in ...
Sack of Rome (1527) - Wikipedia
Salt War (1540)
The Salt War of 1540 was a result of an insurrection by the city of Perugia against the Papal States during the pontificate of Pope Paul III (Alessandro Farnese). The principal result was the city of ...
Salt War (1540) - Wikipedia
Wars of Castro
The Wars of Castro were a series of conflicts during the mid-17th century revolving around the ancient city of Castro (located in present-day Lazio, Italy), which eventually resulted in the city's des...
Wars of Castro - Wikipedia
Holy League (1717)
The Holy League of 1717 was one of many coalitions organised by the Papal States to deal with the Ottoman threat. This last one comprised Portugal, the Republic of Venice and Malta.
Throughout the...
Holy League (1717) - Wikipedia
Papal States under Pope Pius IX
The Papal States under Pope Pius IX assumed a much more modern and secular character than had been seen under previous pontificates, and yet this progressive modernization was not nearly sufficient in...
Papal States under Pope Pius IX - Wikipedia
Captain General of the Church
The Captain General of the Church (Italian: Capitano generale della Chiesa) was the de facto commander-in-chief of the papal armed forces during the Middle Ages. The post was usually conferred on ...
Captain General of the Church - Wikipedia
Papal Navy
The Papal Navy (Italian: Marina Pontificia, "Pontifical Navy") was the maritime force of the Papal States. Loosely construed, it was in sporadic existence from the Battle of Ostia (849) during the...
Papal Zouaves
The Papal Zouaves (Italian: Zuavi Pontifici) were an infantry force formed in defence of the Papal States.
The Zouaves evolved out of a unit formed by Christophe Léon Louis Juchault de Lamoric...
Papal Zouaves - Wikipedia
History of Vatican City
Vatican City (/ˈvætɨkən ˈsɪti/), officially Vatican City State (Italian: Stato della Città del Vaticano; [ˈstaːto della t͡ʃitˈta (d)del vatiˈkaːno]) is a walled enclave wi...
History of Vatican City - Wikipedia
Avignon Papacy
The Avignon Papacy was the period from 1309 to 1377, during which seven successive popes resided in Avignon, in France, rather than in Rome. This situation arose from the conflict between the Papacy a...
Avignon Papacy - Wikipedia