Papal selection before 1059
There was no fixed process for papal selection before 1059. Popes, the bishops of Rome and the leaders of the Catholic Church, were often appointed by their predecessors or secular rulers. While the p...
Papal selection before 1059 - Wikipedia
Persecution of Christians in the Roman Empire
The anti-Christian policies or persecution of Christians in the Roman Empire occurred intermittently over a period of about three centuries until the 313 Edict of Milan issued by Emperors Constantine ...
Persecution of Christians in the Roman Empire - Wikipedia
Constantine I and Christianity
While the Roman Emperor Constantine the Great (reigned 306–337) ruled, Christianity began to transition to the dominant religion of the Roman Empire. Historians remain uncertain about Constantine's re...
Constantine I and Christianity - Wikipedia
Primacy of Simon Peter
Primacy of Simon Peter, also known as Petrine primacy (from the Latin Petrus for "Peter"), is the position of preeminence that is attributed to the Apostle Peter among the Twelve Apostles.It is to be ...
Primacy of Simon Peter - Wikipedia
Apostolic succession
Apostolic succession is the method whereby the ministry of the Christian Church is held to be derived from the apostles by a continuous succession, which has usually been associated with a claim that ...
Apostolic succession - Wikipedia
Decline of the Roman Empire
The causes and mechanisms of the decline of the Roman Empire are a historical theme that was introduced by historian Edward Gibbon in his 1776 book The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. He started...
Ostrogothic Papacy
The Ostrogothic Papacy was a period from 493 to 537 where the papacy was strongly influenced by the Ostrogothic Kingdom, if the pope was not outright appointed by the Ostrogothic King. The selection a...
Ostrogothic Papacy - Wikipedia
Byzantine Papacy
The Byzantine Papacy was a period of Byzantine domination of the papacy from 537 to 752, when popes required the approval of the Byzantine Emperor for episcopal consecration, and many popes were chose...
Byzantine Papacy - Wikipedia
Frankish Papacy
From 756 to 857, the papacy shifted from the orbit of the Byzantine Empire to the that of the kings of the Franks. Pepin the Short (ruled 751–768), Charlemagne (r. 768–814) (co-ruler with his brother...
Frankish Papacy - Wikipedia
Saeculum obscurum
Saeculum obscurum (Latin: the Dark Age) is a name given to a period in the history of the Papacy during the first half of the 10th century, beginning with the installation of Pope Sergius III in 9...
Counts of Tusculum
The counts of Tusculum were the most powerful secular noblemen in Latium, near Rome, in the present-day Italy between the 10th and 12th centuries. Several popes and an antipope during the 11th century...
Counts of Tusculum - Wikipedia
Crescentii
The Crescentii clan (in modern Italian Crescenzi) — if they were an extended family — essentially ruled Rome and controlled the Papacy from the middle of the 10th century until the nearly simultaneous...
Crescentii - Wikipedia
Tusculan Papacy
The Tusculan Papacy was a period of papal history from 1012-1048 where three successive Counts of Tusculum installed themselves as pope.
Theophylact I, Count of Tusculum, his wife Theodora, and da...
Tusculan Papacy - Wikipedia
Investiture Controversy
The Investiture Controversy or Investiture Contest was the most significant conflict between Church and state in medieval Europe. In the 11th and 12th centuries, a series of popes challenged the aut...
Early centers of Christianity
Early Christianity (generally considered the time period from its start to 325), spread from the Eastern Mediterranean throughout the Roman Empire and beyond, reaching as far east as India. Originally...
Early centers of Christianity - Wikipedia
Battle of Cape Bon (468)
The Battle of Cap Bon was an engagement during a joint military expedition of the Western and Eastern Roman Empires led by Basiliscus against the Vandal capital of Carthage in 468. The invasion of the...
Battle of Cape Bon (468) - Wikipedia
Constantine I and the bishops of Rome
Constantine I's relationship with the four Bishops of Rome during his reign is an important component of the history of the Papacy, and more generally the history of the Catholic Church.The legend sur...
Constantine I and the bishops of Rome - Wikipedia
Decian persecution
The Decian persecution resulted from an edict issued in 250 by the Emperor Decius ordering everyone in the Roman Empire to perform a sacrifice to the Roman gods and the well-being of the Emperor. The ...
Decian persecution - Wikipedia
Antonine Plague
The Antonine Plague of 165–180 AD—also known as the Plague of Galen, who described it—was an ancient pandemic brought back to the Roman Empire by troops returning from campaigns in the Near East. It h...
Persecution of early Christians in the Roman Empire
The anti-Christian policies or persecution of Christians in the Roman Empire occurred intermittently over a period of about three centuries until the 313 Edict of Milan issued by Emperors Constantine ...
Persecution of early Christians in the Roman Empire - Wikipedia
Edict of Thessalonica
The Edict of Thessalonica, also known as Cunctos populos, was issued in 380 AD. It ordered all subjects of the Roman Empire to profess the faith of the bishops of Rome and Alexandria, making Nicene Ch...
Odoacer
Flavius Odoacer (433–493), also known as Flavius Odovacer (German: Odoaker), was a soldier, who in 476 became the first King of Italy (476–493). His reign is commonly seen as marking the end of th...
Odoacer - Wikipedia
Persecution of Christians in the New Testament
The persecution of Christians in the New Testament is an important part of the Early Christian narrative which depicts the early Church as being persecuted for their heterodox beliefs by a Jewish esta...
Battle of the Save
The Battle of the Save was fought in 388 between the forces of Roman usurper Magnus Maximus and the Eastern Roman Empire. Emperor Theodosius I defeated Magnus Maximus's army in battle. Later Maximus ...
Battle of the Save - Wikipedia
Concordat of Worms
Concordat of Worms, sometimes called the Pactum Calixtinum by papal historians, was an agreement between Pope Calixtus II and Holy Roman Emperor Henry V on September 23, 1122 near the c...
Concordat of Worms - Wikipedia
Byzantine architecture
Byzantine architecture is the architecture of the Byzantine Empire, also known as the Later Roman or Eastern Roman Empire. This terminology is used by modern historians to designate the medieval Roma...
Byzantine architecture - Wikipedia
Plague of Cyprian
The Plague of Cyprian is the name given to a pandemic, probably of smallpox, that afflicted the Roman Empire from AD 250 onwards during the larger Crisis of the Third Century. It was still raging in 2...
Deposition of Romulus Augustulus
Odoacer's deposition of Romulus Augustulus, occurring in 476 AD, marked the end of the period during which Western Roman Emperors exercised sovereignty.
Ancient Rome had twice been submitted to sa...
Deposition of Romulus Augustulus - Wikipedia
State church of the Roman Empire
Nicene Christianity became the state church of the Roman Empire with the Edict of Thessalonica in AD 380, when Emperor Theodosius I made it the Empire's sole authorized religion. The Eastern Orthodox ...
State church of the Roman Empire - Wikipedia
Battle of Adrianople
The Battle of Adrianople (9 August 378), sometimes known as the Battle of Hadrianopolis, was fought between a Roman army led by the Roman Emperor Valens and Gothic rebels (largely Thervings as well as...