Niqqud
In Hebrew orthography, niqqud or nikkud (Hebrew: נִקּוּד,  nikud,  niqqûḏ ; "dotting, pointing" or Hebrew: נְקֻדּוֹת,  nekudot,  nəquddôṯ ; "dots") is a system of...
Niqqud - Wikipedia
Ruby character
Ruby characters (ルビ, Rubi) are small, annotative glosses that can be placed above or to the right of a Chinese character when writing languages with logographic characters such as Chinese or J...
Harakat
The Arabic script has numerous diacritics, including i'jam ⟨إِعْجَام⟩ (i‘jām, consonant pointing), and tashkil ⟨تَشْكِيل⟩ (tashkīl, supplementary diacritics). The latter in...
Harakat - Wikipedia
Rafe
In Hebrew orthography the rafe, or more commonly spelt raphe (Hebrew: רָפֵה   [ʁaˈfe]), is a diacritic (⟨ ֿ ⟩), a subtle horizontal overbar placed above certain lett...
Hiriq
Hiriq (Hebrew: חִירִיק ḥiriq  [χiˈʁik]) is a Hebrew niqqud vowel sign represented by a dot ⟨ ִ ⟩ underneath the letter. In Modern Hebrew, it indicates the phoneme /i/ whi...
Hiriq - Wikipedia
Romanization of Japanese
The romanization of Japanese is the application of the Latin script to write the Japanese language. This method of writing is sometimes referred to in English as rōmaji (ローマ字, literally, "roman letter...
Arabic diacritics
The Arabic script has numerous diacritics, including i'jam ⟨إِعْجَام⟩ (i‘jām, consonant pointing), and tashkil ⟨تَشْكِيل⟩ (tashkīl, supplementary diacritics). The latter in...
Arabic diacritics - Wikipedia
IPA vowel chart with audio
This article provides a chart with audio examples for phonetic vowel symbols. The symbols shown include those of the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) and added material. The chart is based on the...
IPA vowel chart with audio - Wikipedia
Uddin and Begum Urdu-Hindustani Romanization
The Uddin and Begum Urdu-Hindustani Romanization scheme is an international standard for romanising Urdu/Hindustani (i.e., for transliterating Urdu/Hindustani into the Latin alphabet). Syed Fasih Uddi...
Uddin and Begum Urdu-Hindustani Romanization - Wikipedia
Pinyin
Pinyin, or Hanyu Pinyin, is the official phonetic system for transcribing the Mandarin pronunciations of Chinese characters into the Latin alphabet in the People's Republic of China, Taiwan (Republic ...
Pinyin - Wikipedia
Hepburn romanization
The Hepburn romanization system (ヘボン式ローマ字, Hebon-shiki Rōmaji) is named after James Curtis Hepburn, who used it to transcribe the sounds of the Japanese language into the Latin alphabet in the...
Kamatz
Qamatz (Hebrew: קָמַץ, [kaˈmats]) is a Hebrew niqqud (vowel) sign represented by two perpendicular lines (looking like an uppercase T) ⟨ ָ  ⟩ underneath a letter. In mo...
International Phonetic Alphabet chart for English dialects
This concise chart shows the most common applications of the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) to represent English language pronunciations.See Pronunciation respelling for English for phonetic tr...
Wāpuro rōmaji
Wāpuro rōmaji (ワープロローマ字), or kana spelling, is a style of romanization of Japanese originally devised for entering Japanese into word processors (wādo purosessā, often abbreviated wāpuro) while u...
Bopomofo
Zhuyin fuhao, Zhuyin or Bopomofo is a system of phonetic notation for the transcription of spoken Chinese, particularly the Mandarin dialect. The first two are traditional terms, whereas Bopomofo is t...
Bopomofo - Wikipedia
French IPA vowel chart with audio
The following are the vowel sounds of the French language in the International Phonetic Alphabet along with audio files for each size. The IPA maps the vowels according to the position of the tongue.S...
French IPA vowel chart with audio - Wikipedia
Furigana
Furigana (振り仮名) is a Japanese reading aid, consisting of smaller kana, or syllabic characters, printed next to a kanji (ideographic character) or other character to indicate its pronunciation. It ...
Furigana - Wikipedia
Segol
Segol (Hebrew: סֶגּוֹל   [seˈɡol]) is a Hebrew niqqud vowel sign that is represented by three dots forming an upside down equilateral triangle "ֶ". As such, it resembles an upside down therefore...
IPA extensions (Unicode block)
IPA Extensions is a block (0250–02AF) of the Unicode standard that contains full size letters used in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA). Both modern and historical characters are included, as ...
Dagger alif
The Dagger alif or superscript alif (Arabic: ألف خنجرية‎ alif khanjariyya) is written as a short vertical stroke on top of an Arabic letter. It indicates a long /aː/ sound where alif is norm...
Dagger alif - Wikipedia
Zeire
Tzere (also spelled Tsere, Tzeirei, Zere, Zeire, Ṣerî, Ṣerê etc.; Hebrew: צֵירֵי   [tseˈʁe], sometimes צירה) is a Hebrew niqqud vowel sign represented by two dots "◌ֵ" underneath a letter. In mod...
Patach
Pataḥ (Hebrew: פַּתַח pataḥ, [paˈtaχ], Biblical: paṯaḥ ) is a Hebrew niqqud vowel sign represented by a horizontal line ⟨ אַ ⟩ underneath a letter. In modern Hebrew, it...
Hamza
Hamza (Arabic: هَمْزة‎, hamzah) (ء) is a letter in the Arabic alphabet, representing the glottal stop [ʔ]. Hamza is not one of the 28 "full" letters, and owes its existence to historical inc...
Pronunciation spelling
A pronunciation respelling is a regular phonetic respelling of a word that does have a standard spelling, so as to indicate the pronunciation. Pronunciation respellings are sometimes seen in dictionar...
Kubutz and Shuruk
Kubutz (Hebrew: קֻבּוּץ [kuˈbuts]) and Shuruk (Hebrew: שׁוּרוּק [ʃuˈʁuk]) are the two Hebrew niqqud vowel signs that represent the sound [u].
The Kubutz sign is represented by three dia...
Mappiq
The mappiq (מפיק, also mapiq, mapik, mappik, lit. "causing to go out") is a diacritic used in the Hebrew alphabet. It is part of the Masoretes' system of niqqud (vowel points), and was added to Hebrew...
Mappiq - Wikipedia
Sichuanese Pinyin
Sichuanese Pinyin (Sicuanhua Pinyin; simplified Chinese: 四川话拼音; traditional Chinese: 四川話拼音; pinyin: Sìchuānhuà pīnyīn), is a romanization system specifically designed for the Chengdu diale...
Sichuanese Pinyin - Wikipedia
Holam
Holam (Hebrew: חוֹלָם ḥolam, [χoˈlam], [ħoˈlam]) is a Hebrew niqqud vowel sign represented by a dot above the upper left corner of the consonant letter. For example, here the ḥolam appears after th...