Planck's law
Planck's law describes the electromagnetic radiation emitted by a black body in thermal equilibrium at a definite temperature. The law is named after Max Planck, who originally proposed it in 1900. It...
Planck's law - Wikipedia
Gas in a box
In quantum mechanics, the results of the quantum particle in a box can be used to look at the equilibrium situation for a quantum ideal gas in a box which is a box containing a large number of molecul...
Kirchhoff's law of thermal radiation
In thermodynamics, Kirchhoff's law of thermal radiation refers to wavelength-specific radiative emission and absorption by a material body in thermodynamic equilibrium, including radiative exchange eq...
Kirchhoff's law of thermal radiation - Wikipedia
Lambert's cosine law
In optics, Lambert's cosine law says that the radiant intensity or luminous intensity observed from an ideal diffusely reflecting surface or ideal diffuse radiator is directly proportional to the cosi...
Stefan-Boltzmann law
The Stefan–Boltzmann law, also known as Stefan's law, describes the power radiated from a black body in terms of its temperature. Specifically, the Stefan–Boltzmann law states that the total energy r...
Stefan-Boltzmann law - Wikipedia
Radiative transfer
Radiative transfer is the physical phenomenon of energy transfer in the form of electromagnetic radiation. The propagation of radiation through a medium is affected by absorption, emission, and scatte...
Atomic spectral line
Spectroscopy /spɛkˈtrɒskəpi/ is the study of the interaction between matter and radiated energy. Historically, spectroscopy originated through the study of visible light dispersed according to its wav...
Atomic spectral line - Wikipedia
Thomas-Fermi model
The Thomas–Fermi (TF) model, named after Llewellyn Thomas and Enrico Fermi, is a quantum mechanical theory for the electronic structure of many-body systems developed semiclassically shortly after the...
Stimulated emission
Stimulated emission is the process by which an incoming photon of a specific frequency can interact with an excited atomic electron (or other excited molecular state), causing it to drop to a lower e...
Absorption (optics)
In physics, absorption of electromagnetic radiation is the way in which the energy of a photon is taken up by matter, typically the electrons of an atom. Thus, the electromagnetic energy is transforme...
Spontaneous emission
Spontaneous emission is the process by which a quantum system such as an atom, molecule, nanocrystal or nucleus in an excited state undergoes a transition to a state with a lower energy (e.g., the gro...
Spontaneous emission - Wikipedia
Lambertian reflectance
Lambertian reflectance is the property that defines an ideal "matte" or diffusely reflecting surface. The apparent brightness of such a surface to an observer is the same regardless of the observer's ...
Lambertian reflectance - Wikipedia