Presupposition
In the branch of linguistics known as pragmatics, a presupposition (or ps) is an implicit assumption about the world or background belief relating to an utterance whose truth is taken for granted in d...
You Are a Rainbow - Seven Levels of Intelligence
Epistemology, the study of knowing how we know, is fundamental to focused intelligence. Howard Gardner of Harvard University, and author of Frames of Mind, identifies multiple levels of intelligence: ...
Definite description
A definite description is a denoting phrase in the form of "the X" where X is a noun-phrase or a singular common noun. The definite description is proper if X applies to a unique individual or object....
Epistemology
Epistemology (/ɨˌpɪstɨˈmɒlədʒi/; from Greek ἐπιστήμη, epistēmē, meaning "knowledge, understanding", and λόγος, logos, meaning "study of") is the branch of philosophy concerned with t...
You Are a Rainbow - Seven Levels of Intelligence
Epistemology, the study of knowing how we know, is fundamental to focused intelligence. Howard Gardner of Harvard University, and author of Frames of Mind, identifies multiple levels of intelligence: ...
Empirical method
Empirical research is research using empirical evidence. It is a way of gaining knowledge by means of direct and indirect observation or experience. Empiricism values such research more than other kin...
Non-monotonic logic
A non-monotonic logic is a formal logic whose consequence relation is not monotonic. In other words, non-monotonic logics are devised to capture and represent defeasible inferences (c.f.defeasible rea...
Problem of universals
In metaphysics, the problem of universals refers to the question of whether properties exist, and if so, what they are. Properties are qualities or relations that two or more entities have in common...
Plato's Problem
Plato's Problem is the term given by Noam Chomsky to the gap between knowledge and experience. It presents the question of how we account for our knowledge when environmental conditions seem to be an ...
Plato's Problem - Wikipedia
Exploratory thought
Exploratory thought is an academic term used in the field of psychology to describe reasoning that neutrally considers multiple points of view and tries to anticipate all possible objections to, or fl...
Reason
Reason is the capacity for consciously making sense of things, applying logic, establishing and verifying facts, and changing or justifying practices, institutions, and beliefs based on new or existin...
Reason - Wikipedia
Factual relativism
Factual relativism or epistemic relativism is a mode of reasoning that extends relativism and subjectivism to factual matter and reason. In factual relativism the facts used to establish the truth or ...
Certainty
Certainty is perfect knowledge that has total security from error, or the mental state of being without doubt.Objectively defined, certainty is total continuity and validity of all foundational inquir...
Apperception
Apperception (from the Latin ad-, "to, toward" and percipere, "to perceive, gain, secure, learn, or feel") is any of several aspects of perception and consciousness in such fields as psychology, philo...
Dispositional and occurrent belief
There is no way to speak generally about belief. One such attempt at speaking generally states that belief is a mental representation of a sentient being's attitude toward the likelihood or truth of ...
Twin Earth thought experiment
Twin Earth is a thought experiment presented by philosopher Hilary Putnam in his 1973 paper "Meaning and Reference" and subsequent 1975 paper "The Meaning of 'Meaning'", as an early argument for what ...
Epistemic commitment
Epistemic commitment is an obligation, which may be withdrawn only under appropriate circumstances, to uphold the factual truth of a given proposition, and to provide reasons for one's belief in that ...
Infallibility
Infallibility is a term with a variety of meanings related to knowing truth with certainty.
Definitions of 'infallible' differ widely. In common speech, 'infallibility' can refer to a person (or a...
Philosophical zombie
A philosophical zombie or p-zombie in the philosophy of mind and perception is a hypothetical being that is indistinguishable from a normal human being except in that it lacks conscious experience, qu...
Exclusion principle (philosophy)
The Exclusion principle is a philosophical principle that states:
The exclusion principle is most commonly applied when one poses this scenario; One usually considers that the desire to lift one’s...
Theaetetus (dialogue)
The Theaetetus (/ˌθiːɪˈtiːtəs/; Greek: Θεαίτητος) is one of Plato's dialogues concerning the nature of knowledge, written circa 369 BC. In this dialogue, Socrates and Theaetetus discuss three defi...
Knowledge
Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness or understanding of someone or something, such as facts, information, descriptions, or skills, which is acquired through experience or education by perceiving, di...
Knowledge - Wikipedia
Maieutics
Maieutics (/meɪˈjuːtɨks/ or /maɪˈjuːtɨks/) is a pedagogical method synonymous with the Socratic Method. Maieutics is based on the belief that many important lessons and truths cannot be taught directl...
Truth by consensus
In philosophy, truth by consensus is the process of taking statements to be true simply because people generally agree upon them. Lakatos characterizes it as a "watered down" form of provable truth p...
Epistemic modal logic
Epistemic modal logic is a subfield of modal logic that is concerned with reasoning about knowledge. While epistemology has a long philosophical tradition dating back to Ancient Greece, epistemic log...
Swamping problem
The swamping problem is a problem that appears in the context of epistemology that shows that the idea that knowledge has no additional value over true belief. The problem assumes that knowledge is a ...
Testimony
In law and in religion, testimony is a solemn attestation as to the truth of a matter.
The words "testimony" and "testify" both have a root in the Latin testis, referring to the notion of a third ...
Testimony - Wikipedia
Compensationism
Compensationism is one of several theological doctrines, opposed to Probabilism.
Compensationism maintains that a doubtful law is not devoid of all binding force, and that there must be a compensa...
Sociology of knowledge
The sociology of knowledge is the study of the relationship between human thought and the social context within which it arises, and of the effects prevailing ideas have on societies. It is not a spec...
Incorrigibility
In philosophy, incorrigibility is a property of a philosophical proposition, which implies that it is necessarily true simply by virtue of being believed. A common example of such a proposition is Ren...