Spanish Armada
The Spanish Armada (Spanish: Grande y Felicísima Armada , literally "Great and Most Happy Navy") was a Spanish fleet of 130 ships that sailed from A Coruña in August 1588, under the command of the...
Spanish Armada - Wikipedia
Kirchenkampf
Kirchenkampf (English: "church struggle") is a German term pertaining to the situation of the Christian churches in Germany during the Nazi period (1933–1945). Sometimes used ambiguously, the term may...
Kirchenkampf - Wikipedia
Edmund Bonner
Edmund Bonner (also Boner; c. 1500 – 5 September 1569), Bishop of London, was an English bishop. Initially an instrumental figure in the schism of Henry VIII from Rome, he was antagonized by the Prote...
Edmund Bonner - Wikipedia
Massacre of Vassy
The Massacre of Vassy, also known as the Massacre of Wassy, is the name given to the murder of Huguenot worshipers and citizens in an armed action by troops of Francis, Duke of Guise, in Wassy, France...
Massacre of Vassy - Wikipedia
Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, 3rd Duke of Alba
Fernando Álvarez de Toledo y Pimentel (Piedrahita, 29 October 1507 – Lisbon, 11 December 1582), known as the Grand Duke of Alba in Spain and the Iron Duke in the Netherlands, was a Spanish noble, gene...
Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, 3rd Duke of Alba - Wikipedia
Defenders (Ireland)
The Defenders were a Roman Catholic agrarian secret society in 18th-century Ireland, founded in County Armagh. Initially, they were formed as local defensive organisations opposed to the Protestant Pe...
Tumult of Thorn (Toruń)
The Tumult of Thorn (Toruń), or Blood-Bath of Thorn (Polish: Tumult toruński, German: Thorner Blutgericht) refers to executions ordered in 1724 by the Polish supreme court under Augustus II th...
Tumult of Thorn (Toruń) - Wikipedia
John Lauder
John Lauder (c.1488 – between 1551 and 1556) was Scotland's Public Accuser of Heretics.
In the Great Seal of Scotland, (number 1136 dated at Edinburgh on 15 February 1532) – "the King grants...
Index Librorum Prohibitorum
The Index Librorum Prohibitorum (English: List of Prohibited Books) was a list of publications deemed heretical, anti-clerical or lascivious, and therefore banned by the Catholic Church. A first v...
Index Librorum Prohibitorum - Wikipedia
Rome Rule
"Rome Rule" was a term used by (usually Protestant) Irish unionists to describe their belief that with the passage of a Home Rule Bill, the Roman Catholic Church would gain political power over their ...
Rome Rule - Wikipedia
Pochvennichestvo
Pochvennichestvo (Russian: Почвенничество, roughly Return to the Soil from почва, pochva, the Russian word for soil) was a late 19th-century Russian Ultra-Nationalist movement tied in closely with...
Pochvennichestvo - Wikipedia
Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor
Ferdinand I (10 March 1503 – 25 July 1564) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1558, king of Bohemia and Hungary from 1526, and king of Croatia from 1527 until his death. Before his accession, he ruled the Au...
Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor - Wikipedia
Edict of Versailles
The Edict of Versailles, commonly known as the Edict of Tolerance, was an official act that gave non-Catholics in France the right to openly practice their religions as well as legal and civil status,...
Edict of Versailles - Wikipedia
Bigod's Rebellion
Bigod's Rebellion of January 1537 was an armed rebellion by English Roman Catholics in Cumberland and Westmorland against King Henry VIII of England and the English Parliament. It was led by Sir Franc...
Mary I of England
Mary I (18 February 1516 – 17 November 1558) was the Queen of England and Ireland from July 1553 until her death. Her executions of Protestants caused her opponents to give her the sobriquet "Blo...
Mary I of England - Wikipedia
Protestantische Rompilger
Protestantische Rompilger (subtitled: Der Verrat an Luther, or The treason of Luther) was a polemic written by Alfred Rosenberg to answer the Protestant criticism (mainly from the Confessing Church) ...
Armagh disturbances
The Armagh disturbances was a period of intense sectarian fighting in the 1780s and 1790s between the Protestant Peep o' Day Boys and the Roman Catholic Defenders, in County Armagh, Ireland, culminati...
Exsurge Domine
Exsurge Domine (Latin: Arise O Lord) is a papal bull issued on 15 June 1520 by Pope Leo X. It was written in response to the teachings of Martin Luther which opposed the views of the papacy. It censur...
Exsurge Domine - Wikipedia
Pope Pius V
Pope Saint Pius V (17 January 1504 – 1 May 1572), born Antonio Ghislieri (from 1518 called Michele Ghislieri, O.P.), was Pope from 8 January 1566 to his death in 1572. He is venerated as a saint of th...
Pope Pius V - Wikipedia
Joseph de Maistre
Joseph-Marie, comte de Maistre ([də mɛstʁ]; 1 April 1753 – 26 February 1821) was a Savoyard philosopher, writer, lawyer, freemason and diplomat. He defended hierarchical societies and a monarchical St...
Joseph de Maistre - Wikipedia
Monklands East by-election, 1994
The Monklands East by-election was held on 30 June 1994, following the death of the Leader of the Labour Party John Smith, Member of Parliament (MP) for Monklands East in Scotland, on 12 May.Monklands...
Monklands East by-election, 1994 - Wikipedia
French Wars of Religion
The French Wars of Religion (1562–98) is the name of a period of civil infighting and military operations, primarily fought between French Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). The conflict involved ...
French Wars of Religion - Wikipedia
Philip II of Spain
Philip II (Spanish: Felipe II «el Prudente»; 21 May 1527 – 13 September 1598) was King of Spain from 1556 and of Portugal from 1581 (as Philip I, Felipe I). From 1554 he was King of Naples and Sic...
Philip II of Spain - Wikipedia
Council of Troubles
The Council of Troubles (usual English translation of Dutch: Raad van Beroerten, or Spanish: Tribunal de los Tumultos, or French: Conseil des Troubles) was the special tribunal institut...
Council of Troubles - Wikipedia
Johann Eck
Dr. Johann Maier von Eck (13 November 1486 – 13 February 1543) was a German Scholastic theologian and defender of Catholicism during the Protestant Reformation.
Johann Eck was born Johann Ma...
Johann Eck - Wikipedia
Pope Gregory XIII
Pope Gregory XIII (Latin: Gregorius XIII; 7 January 1502 – 10 April 1585), born Ugo Boncompagni, was Pope of the Catholic Church from 13 May 1572 to his death in 1585. He is best known for commis...
Pope Gregory XIII - Wikipedia
Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor
Charles V (24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was ruler of the Holy Roman Empire from 1519 and, as Charles I, of the Spanish Empire from 1516 until his voluntary abdication in favor of his you...
Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor - Wikipedia