QED vacuum
The quantum electrodynamic vacuum or QED vacuum is the field-theoretic vacuum of quantum electrodynamics. It is the lowest energy state (the ground state) of the electromagnetic field when the fields ...
QED vacuum - Wikipedia
Quantum scientists create light from vacuum
Scientists at Chalmers have succeeded in creating light from vacuum – observing an effect first predicted over 40 years ago. The results have been published in the journal Nature. In an innovative exp...
Vacuum fluctuation
The video of an experiment showing vacuum fluctuations (in the red ring) amplified by spontaneous parametric down-conversion.In quantum physics, a quantum fluctuation (or quantum vacuum fluctuation ...
Virtual particle
In physics, a virtual particle is an explanatory conceptual entity that is found in mathematical calculations about quantum field theory. It refers to mathematical terms that have some appearance of r...
Quantum fluctuation
The video of an experiment showing vacuum fluctuations (in the red ring) amplified by spontaneous parametric down-conversion.In quantum physics, a quantum fluctuation (or quantum vacuum fluctuation ...
Quantization of the electromagnetic field
After quantization of the electromagnetic field, the EM (electromagnetic) field consists of discrete energy parcels, photons. Photons are massless particles of definite energy, definite momentum, and ...
Lamb shift
In physics, the Lamb shift, named after Willis Lamb (1913–2008), is a small difference in energy between two energy levels S1/2 and P1/2 (in term symbol notation) of the hydrogen atom in quantum elect...
Casimir effect
A water wave analogue of the Casimir effect. Two parallel plates are submerged into colored water contained in a sonicator. When the sonicator is turned on, waves are excited imitating vacuum fluctu...
Casimir effect - Wikipedia
Spontaneous emission
Spontaneous emission is the process by which a quantum system such as an atom, molecule, nanocrystal or nucleus in an excited state undergoes a transition to a state with a lower energy (e.g., the gro...
Spontaneous emission - Wikipedia
Quantum noise
In physics, quantum noise refers to the uncertainty of a physical quantity, due to its quantum origin. In certain situations, quantum noise appears as shot noise; for example, most optical communicati...
Quantum scientists create light from vacuum
Scientists at Chalmers have succeeded in creating light from vacuum – observing an effect first predicted over 40 years ago. The results have been published in the journal Nature. In an innovative exp...
Vacuum genesis
Vacuum genesis (zero-energy universe) is a scientific theory about the Big Bang that states that the universe began as a single particle arising from an absolute vacuum, similar to how virtual particl...
Quantum tunnelling
Quantum tunnelling or tunneling (see spelling differences) refers to the quantum mechanical phenomenon where a particle tunnels through a barrier that it classically could not surmount. This plays an ...
Quantum tunnelling - Wikipedia
Pair production
Pair production is the creation of an elementary particle and its antiparticle, for example an electron and its antiparticle, the positron, a muon and antimuon, or a tau and antitau. Usually it occurs...
Zero-point energy
Zero-point energy, also called quantum vacuum zero-point energy, is the lowest possible energy that a quantum mechanical physical system may have; it is the energy of its ground state. All quantum mec...
Unruh effect
The hypothetical Unruh effect (or sometimes Fulling–Davies–Unruh effect) is the prediction that an accelerating observer will observe black-body radiation where an inertial observer would observe none...
Quantum foam
Quantum foam (also referred to as space-time foam) is a concept in quantum mechanics devised by John Wheeler in 1955. The foam is supposed to be conceptualized as the foundation of the fabric of the u...
Quantum annealing
Quantum annealing (QA) is a metaheuristic for finding the global minimum of a given objective function over a given set of candidate solutions (candidate states), by a process using quantum fluctuatio...
Quantum annealing - Wikipedia
Scharnhorst effect
The Scharnhorst effect is a hypothetical phenomenon in which light signals travel faster than c between two closely spaced conducting plates. It was predicted by Klaus Scharnhorst of the Humboldt Univ...
Uncertainty principle
In quantum mechanics, the uncertainty principle, also known as Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, is any of a variety of mathematical inequalities asserting a fundamental limit to the precision with ...
Uncertainty principle - Wikipedia
QCD vacuum
The QCD vacuum is the vacuum state of quantum chromodynamics (QCD). It is an example of a non-perturbative vacuum state, characterized by infinitely many non-vanishing condensates such as the gluon co...
Vacuum state
In quantum field theory, the vacuum state (also called the vacuum) is the quantum state with the lowest possible energy. Generally, it contains no physical particles. Zero-point field is sometimes use...
Force carrier
In particle physics, force carriers are particles that give rise to forces between other particles. These particles are bundles of energy (quanta) of a particular kind of field. There is one kind of f...
Spontaneous symmetry breaking
Spontaneous symmetry breaking is a mode of realization of symmetry breaking in a physical system, where the underlying laws are invariant under a symmetry transformation, but the system as a whole cha...
Spontaneous symmetry breaking - Wikipedia
Superfluid vacuum theory
Superfluid vacuum theory (SVT), sometimes known as the BEC vacuum theory, is an approach in theoretical physics and quantum mechanics where the fundamental physical vacuum (non-removable background) i...
Vacuum energy
Vacuum energy is an underlying background energy that exists in space throughout the entire Universe. One contribution to the vacuum energy may be from virtual particles which are thought to be partic...
Vacuum Rabi oscillation
A vacuum Rabi oscillation is a damped oscillation of an initially excited atom coupled to an electromagnetic resonator or cavity in which the atom alternately emits photon(s) into a single-mode electr...
Perturbation theory (quantum mechanics)
In quantum mechanics, perturbation theory is a set of approximation schemes directly related to mathematical perturbation for describing a complicated quantum system in terms of a simpler one. The id...