Patrimony of Saint Peter
The expression Patrimonium Sancti Petri, or shorter Patrimonium Petri, meaning 'Patrimony of (Saint) Peter', originally designated the landed possessions and revenues of various kinds that belonged to...
Imperial Guard (Napoleon III)
The Imperial Guard of Napoleon III was a military corps in the French Army formed by Napoleon III as a re-establishment of his uncle Napoleon I's Imperial Guard, with an updated version of the origina...
Imperial Guard (Napoleon III) - Wikipedia
Caeca et Obdurata
Caeca et Obdurata Hebraeorum perfidia (named for its Latin incipit, meaning the blind and obdurate perfidy of the Hebrews) was a papal bull, promulgated by Pope Clement VIII on February 25, 1593, whic...
Caeca et Obdurata - Wikipedia
History of Vatican City
Vatican City (/ˈvætɨkən ˈsɪti/), officially Vatican City State (Italian: Stato della Città del Vaticano; [ˈstaːto della t͡ʃitˈta (d)del vatiˈkaːno]) is a walled enclave wi...
History of Vatican City - Wikipedia
Gonfalone of the Church
The Banner of the Holy Roman Church (Latin: Vexillum; Italian: Gonfalone di Santa Romana Chiesa, occasionally Vessilio di San Pietro, "Standard of St. Peter") was the battle standard of the Papal Stat...
Gonfalone of the Church - Wikipedia
Papal States under Pope Pius IX
The Papal States under Pope Pius IX assumed a much more modern and secular character than had been seen under previous pontificates, and yet this progressive modernization was not nearly sufficient in...
Papal States under Pope Pius IX - Wikipedia
Anglo-French conflicts on Hudson Bay
Anglo-French conflicts on Hudson Bay: When the English built trading posts on Hudson Bay the French tried to drive them out. This lasted from 1672 until 1713 when British sovereignty over the Bay was...
Anglo-French conflicts on Hudson Bay - Wikipedia
Société des Artistes Indépendants
The Société des Artistes Indépendants (Society of Independent Artists), Salon des Indépendants, formed in Paris 29 July 1884. The association began with the organization of massive exhibitions in Pari...
Société des Artistes Indépendants - Wikipedia
Council of Assiniboia
The Council of Assiniboia was, from 1821 until 1870, the appointed administrative body of Rupert's Land.
This Council was created by the Hudson's Bay Company to govern the territory following its ...
Rupert's Land
Rupert's Land, or Prince Rupert's Land, was a territory in British North America, consisting the Hudson Bay drainage basin, which was nominally owned by the Hudson's Bay Company for 200 years from 167...
Rupert's Land - Wikipedia
French coup of 1851
The French coup d'état of 2 December 1851 was a self-coup staged by Prince Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte (at the time President of the French Second Republic), ended in the successful dissolution of the Fr...
French coup of 1851 - Wikipedia
The Idol of Paris
The Idol of Paris is a 1948 film based on the novel Paiva, Queen of Love by Alfred Schirokauer, about a mid-19th century French courtesan Theresa who sleeps her way from poverty to the top of Second ...
French Indochina
French Indochina (French: Indochine française; Khmer: សហភាពឥណ្ឌូចិន, Vietnamese: Đông Dương thuộc Pháp, [ɗoŋm zɰəŋ tʰuə̀k fǎp], frequently abbreviated to Đông Pháp), officially k...
French Indochina - Wikipedia
Sénatus-consulte
A sénatus-consulte (French translation of the Latin phrase senatus consultum) was a feature of French law during the French Consulate, First French Empire and Second French Empire.
It was an act v...
Sénatus-consulte - Wikipedia
1837 Great Plains smallpox epidemic
The 1837 Great Plains smallpox epidemic was believed to have begun in the spring of 1837 when a deckhand became ill aboard an American Fur Company steamboat, the S.S. St. Peter. The epidemic ended in ...
1837 Great Plains smallpox epidemic - Wikipedia
Orsini affair
The Orsini affair comprised the diplomatic, political and legal consequences of the "Orsini attempt" (French: attentat d'Orsini): the assassination attempt made on 14 January 1858 by Felice Orsini...
Orsini affair - Wikipedia
Duchy of Rome
The Duchy of Rome (Latin: Ducatus Romanus) was a Byzantine district in the Exarchate of Ravenna. Like other Byzantine states in Italy, it was ruled by an imperial functionary with the title dux. T...
Duchy of Rome - Wikipedia
Saint-Simonianism
Saint-Simonianism was a French political and social movement of the first half of the 19th century, inspired by the ideas of Claude Henri de Rouvroy, comte de Saint-Simon (1760–1825).Saint-Simon's ide...
Saint-Simonianism - Wikipedia
Donation of Constantine
The Donation of Constantine (Latin, Donatio Constantini) is a forged Roman imperial decree by which the emperor Constantine I supposedly transferred authority over Rome and the western part of the Rom...
Donation of Constantine - Wikipedia
Fundamental Statute for the Secular Government of the States of the Church
The Fundamental Statute for the Secular Government of the States of the Church was the constitution of the Papal States conceded by Pope Pius IX as a result of the 1848 Revolutions. It was published o...
Fundamental Statute for the Secular Government of the States of the Church - Wikipedia
Duchy of Castro
The Duchy of Castro was a fiefdom in central Italy formed in 1537 from a small strip of land on what is now Lazio's border with Tuscany, centred on Castro, Lazio, a fortified city on a tufa cliff ove...