Adal Sultanate
The Adal Sultanate or Kingdom of Adal (Arabic: عدل ʿadl‎ "justice") was a medieval Muslim Somali, Harari, and Afar state located in the Horn of Africa. It flourished from around 1415 to 157...
Adal Sultanate - Wikipedia
Ajuuraan State
The Ajuran Sultanate (Somali: Saldanadda Ajuuraan, Arabic: سلطنة أجوران‎), also spelled as the Ajuuraan Sultanate, and often simply as Ajuran, was a Somali Muslim empire that ruled over ...
Ajuuraan State - Wikipedia
Bamana Empire
The Bamana Empire (also Bambara Empire or Ségou Empire) was a large West African state based at Ségou, now in Mali. It was ruled by the Kulubali or Coulibaly dynasty established circa 1640 by Kaladia...
Bamana Empire - Wikipedia
Bornu Empire
The Bornu Empire (1380–1893) was a state of what is now northeastern Nigeria from 1380 to 1893. It was a continuation of the great Kanem Empire founded centuries earlier by the Sayfawa Dynasty. ...
Bornu Empire - Wikipedia
Geledi sultanate
The Sultanate of the Geledi (Somali: Saldanadda Geledi, Arabic: سلطنة غلدي‎) was a Somali kingdom that ruled parts of the Horn of Africa during the late-17th century and 19th century. Th...
Kanem Empire
The Kanem Empire (c. 700 – 1376) was located in the present countries of Chad, Nigeria and Libya. At its height it encompassed an area covering not only much of Chad, but also parts of southern Libya ...
Mali Empire
The Mali Empire (Manding: Nyeni; English: Niani), also historically referred to as the Manden Kurufaba, was a Mandinka/Bambara empire in West Africa from c. 1230 to c. 1600. The empire was foun...
Mali Empire - Wikipedia
Massina Empire
The Massina Empire (Var.: Maasina or Macina: also: Dina of Massina, Sise Jihad state, and Caliphate of Hamdullahi) was an early nineteenth-century Fulbe Jihad state centered in the Inner Niger Delta a...
Sokoto Caliphate
The Sokoto Caliphate was an Islamic state, the most powerful in West Africa in the nineteenth century. It was founded during the Fulani War in 1809 by Usman dan Fodio. When the British too...
Sokoto Caliphate - Wikipedia
Songhai Empire
The Songhai Empire, also spelled as the Songhay Empire, was a Songhai state that dominated the western Sahel in the 15th and 16th century. At its peak the empire was one of the largest in both I...
Songhai Empire - Wikipedia
Toucouleur Empire
The Toucouleur Empire (also known as the Tijaniyya Jihad state or the Segu Tukulor) (1861-1890) was founded in the mid-nineteenth century by El Hadj Umar Tall of the Toucouleur people, in part of pres...
Toucouleur Empire - Wikipedia
Ondo Kingdom
The Ondo Kingdom is a traditional state that traces its origins back for over 500 years, with capital in Ondo City, Ondo State, Nigeria. The kingdom survived during and after the colonial period, but ...
Eze Nri Ìfikuánim
Eze Nri Ìfikuánim was the first king of the Nri Kingdom. According to Igbo oral tradition, his reign started in 1043, although at least one historian puts Ìfikuánim's reign much later, around 1225 AD....
Uli II (mansa)
Mansa Uli II (French: "Ouli II"), also known as Gbèré, was the twentieth mansa ("king of kings") of the Mali Empire. He ruled over the realm during the latter half of the 15th century.According to th...
Maduna
Maduna (Somali: Maduuna) is an ancient town in the northern Sanaag region of Somalia.
It is situated 90 km southward of Erigavo. The city is said to date from the Golden Age of the medieval Ad...
Amadu III of Masina
Amadu III of Masina (Arabic: Aḥmad bin Aḥmad bin Aḥmad Lobbo‎, Fula: Āmadu mo Āmadu mo Āmadu Lobbo), also known as Amadu Amadu (1830 - 16 May 1862) was the third and last ruler of the t...
Amadu III of Masina - Wikipedia
Mensa Bonsu
Mensa Bonsu (c. 1840 – c. 1896) was the tenth king of the Kingdom of Ashanti, from 1874 until his forced abdication on 8 March 1883.
Mensa Bonsu became Asantehene (king of the Ashanti)...
Za Dynasty
The Za Dynasty or Zuwa Dynasty were rulers of a kingdom based in the towns of Kukiya and Gao on the Niger River in what is today modern Mali.
Al-Sadi's seventeenth century chronicle, the Tarikh al...
Amud
Amud or Amoud (Somali: Amuud, Arabic: العامود‎) is an ancient, ruined town in the northwestern Awdal region of Somalia. It was a center of activity during the Golden Age of the Adal Sult...
Amud - Wikipedia
Marka people
The Marka (also Marka Dafing, Meka, or Maraka) people are a Soninke people of northwest Mali. They speak the Manding Marka language.
Muslim merchant communities at the time of the Bambara Empire,...
Marka people - Wikipedia
Barawa
Barawa (Somali: Baraawe, Arabic: مدينة ﺑﺮﺍﻭة‎), also known as Brava, is a port town in the southeastern Lower Shebelle region of Somalia.
In the 16th century, Barawa, which was then ...
Barawa - Wikipedia
Kingdom of Matamba
The Kingdom of Matamba (1631–1744) was a pre-colonial African state located in what is now the Baixa de Cassange region of Malanje Province of modern day Angola. It was a powerful kingdom that long r...
Kwararafa
Kwararafa was a multiethnic state and/or confederacy centered along the Benue River valley in what is today eastern Nigeria. It was located southwest of the Bornu Empire and south of the Hausa States,...
Empire of Great Fulo
The Empire of Great Fulo, also known as the Denanke Kingdom or Denianke Kingdom was a pre-Islamic Pulaar kingdom of Senegal, which dominated the Futa Tooro region. Its population dominated its neighbo...
Empire of Great Fulo - Wikipedia
Girolamo da Montesarchio
The Italian Capuchin Girolamo da Montesarchio spent twenty years in the mid-17th century in the Kingdom of Kongo in West Africa. His manuscript account, Viaggio al Congho, provides modern historians a...
Khasso
Khasso or Xaaso was a West African kingdom of the 17th to 19th centuries, occupying territory in what is today Senegal and the Kayes Region of Mali. Over two thousand years ago, it was part of Serer t...
Sonni Dynasty
The Sonni Dynasty or Sunni Dynasty was a dynasty of rulers of the Songhai Empire of medieval West Africa. The first ruler of the dynasty, Sunni Ali Kulun probably reigned at the end of the fourteenth ...
Ethiopian Empire
The Ethiopian Empire (Amharic: የኢትዮጵያ ንጉሠ ነገሥት መንግሥተ, Mängəstä Ityop'p'ya), also known as Abyssinia, spanned a geographical area covered by present-day Eritrea and the northern half of Ethiopia. ...