The Crusades
The Crusades were military campaigns sanctioned by the Latin Roman Catholic Church during the High Middle Ages and Late Middle Ages. In 1095, Pope Urban II proclaimed the First Crusade with the stated...
The Crusades - Wikipedia
Mystery Of The Knights Templars: Protectors Or Treasure Hunters On A Secret Mission?
The Knights Templars were a secret society whose true purpose remains a mystery or is at least vigorously debated among scholars and historians to this day. The Templars left behind many clues of the...
Battle of Ostia
The naval Battle of Ostia took place in 849 between some Saracen pirates and an Italian league of Papal, Neapolitan, Amalfitan and Gaetan ships. The battle ended in favor of the Italian league, as the...
Battle of Ostia - Wikipedia
Reconquista
The Reconquista ("reconquest") is a period of approximately 781 years in the history of the Iberian Peninsula, after the Islamic conquest in 711 to the fall of Granada, the last Islamic state on the p...
Reconquista - Wikipedia
Fraxinetum
Fraxinet or Fraxinetum (Arabic: فرخشنيط Farakhshanīt‎ or فرخسة Farakhsha, from Latin fraxinus: "ash tree", fraxinetum: "ash forest") was the site of a 10th-century fortress established by Sa...
Fraxinetum - Wikipedia
Pisan-Genoese expeditions to Sardinia (1015-1016)
In 1015 and again in 1016 forces from the taifa of Denia, in the east of Muslim Spain (al-Andalus), attacked Sardinia and attempted to establish control over it. In both these years joint expeditions ...
Pisan-Genoese expeditions to Sardinia (1015-1016) - Wikipedia
Norman conquest of southern Italy
The Norman conquest of southern Italy spanned most of the 11th and 12th centuries, involving many battles and independent conquerors. Only later were these territories in southern Italy united as the ...
Norman conquest of southern Italy - Wikipedia
War of Barbastro
The War of Barbastro (also known as the Siege of Barbastro) was an international expedition, sanctioned by Pope Alexander II, to take the Spanish city of Barbastro from the Moors. A large army compose...
Mahdia campaign
The Mahdia campaign of 1087 was an attack on the North African town of Mahdia by armed ships from the northern Italian maritime republics of Genoa and Pisa. It had been prompted by the actions of the ...
First Crusade
The First Crusade (1096–1099) was the first of a number of crusades that attempted to capture the Holy Lands called by Pope Urban II in 1095. It started as a widespread pilgrimage in western christend...
First Crusade - Wikipedia
Siege of Jerusalem (1099)
The Siege of Jerusalem took place from June 7 to July 15, 1099 during the First Crusade. The climax of the First Crusade, the successful siege saw the Crusaders seize the city from the Fatimid Calipha...
Siege of Jerusalem (1099) - Wikipedia
Crusade of 1101
The Crusade of 1101 was a minor crusade of three separate movements, organized in 1100 and 1101 in the successful aftermath of the First Crusade. It is also called the Crusade of the Faint-Hearted due...
Crusade of 1101 - Wikipedia
Norwegian Crusade
The Norwegian Crusade was a crusade that lasted from 1107 to 1110, in the aftermath of the First Crusade, led by Norwegian king Sigurd I. Sigurd was the first Scandinavian king to go on crusade to the...
Norwegian Crusade - Wikipedia
Second Crusade
The Second Crusade (1145–1149) was the second major crusade launched from Europe. The Second Crusade was started in response to the fall of the County of Edessa the previous year to the forces of Zeng...
Second Crusade - Wikipedia
Third Crusade
The Third Crusade (1189–1192), also known as the Kings' Crusade, was an attempt by European leaders to reconquer the Holy Land from Saladin (Ṣalāḥ ad-Dīn Yūsuf ibn Ayyūb). The campaign was largely suc...
Third Crusade - Wikipedia
Fourth Crusade
The Fourth Crusade (1202–04) was a Western European expedition which was originally intended to conquer Muslim-controlled Jerusalem by means of an invasion through Egypt. However in January 1203, en r...
Fourth Crusade - Wikipedia
Albigensian Crusade
The Albigensian Crusade or Cathar Crusade (1209–1229) was a 20-year military campaign initiated by Pope Innocent III to eliminate Catharism in Languedoc, in the south of France. The Crusade was prosec...
Albigensian Crusade - Wikipedia
Children's Crusade
The Children's Crusade is the name given to a disastrous Crusade by European Christians to expel Muslims from the Holy Land said to have taken place in 1212. The traditional narrative is probably co...
Children's Crusade - Wikipedia
Fifth Crusade
The Fifth Crusade (1213–1221) was an attempt by Catholic Europeans to reacquire Jerusalem and the rest of the Holy Land by first conquering the powerful Ayyubid state in Egypt.Pope Innocent III...
Fifth Crusade - Wikipedia
Sixth Crusade
The Sixth Crusade started in 1228 as an attempt to regain Jerusalem. It began seven years after the failure of the Fifth Crusade. It involved very little actual fighting. The diplomatic maneuvering of...
Sixth Crusade - Wikipedia
Seventh Crusade
The Seventh Crusade was a crusade led by Louis IX of France from 1248 to 1254. Approximately 800,000 bezants were paid in ransom for King Louis who, along with thousands of his troops, were defeated a...
Seventh Crusade - Wikipedia
Eighth Crusade
The Eighth Crusade was a crusade launched by Louis IX, King of France, in 1270. The Eighth Crusade is sometimes counted as the Seventh, if the Fifth and Sixth Crusades of Frederick II are counted as a...
Eighth Crusade - Wikipedia
Ninth Crusade
The Ninth Crusade, which is sometimes grouped with the Eighth Crusade, is commonly considered to be the last major medieval Cru...
Ninth Crusade - Wikipedia
Northern Crusades
The Northern Crusades or Baltic Crusades were crusades undertaken by the Christian kings of Denmark, Poland and Sweden, the German Livonian and Teutonic military orders, and their allies against the p...
Northern Crusades - Wikipedia
Historiography of the Crusades
The historiography of the Crusades is how historians and the popular culture have dealt with the Crusades. There are many viewpoints, since Western and Eastern judgments differ sharply. The dichotomy ...
Historiography of the Crusades - Wikipedia
Fernando Pérez de Traba
Fernando or Fernán Pérez de Traba (c.1090–c.1155), also Fernão Peres de Trava in Portuguese, was a nobleman and count of the then Kingdom of León who for a time held power over all Galicia. He became ...
Fernando Pérez de Traba - Wikipedia
Battle of Golpejera
The Battle of Golpejera also known as Golpejar, was an internecine battle among Christian kingdoms fought in early January, 1072. King Sancho II of Castile (the Strong) defeated the forces of his brot...
Battle of Golpejera - Wikipedia
Battle of Río Salado
The Battle of Río Salado, also known as the Battle of Tarifa (30 October 1340) was a battle of the armies of King Afonso IV of Portugal and King Alfonso XI of Castile against those of sultan Abu al-Ha...
Granada War
The Granada War (Spanish: Guerra de Granada) was a series of military campaigns between 1482 and 1492, during the reign of the Catholic Monarchs (los Reyes Católicos) Isabella I of Castile and Fer...
Granada War - Wikipedia