Theodicy
Theodicy (/θiːˈɒdɪsi/), in its most common form, is the attempt to answer the question of why a good God permits the manifestation of evil. Theodicy attempts to resolve the evidential problem of evil ...
Theodicy - Wikipedia
Consolation of Philosophy
The Consolation of Philosophy (Latin: DE CONSOLATIONE PHILOSOPHIÆ) is a work by the sixth-century philosopher Boethius that has been described as having had the single most important influence on ...
Consolation of Philosophy - Wikipedia
Divine command theory
Divine command theory is a meta-ethical theory which proposes that an action's status as morally good is equivalent to whether it is commanded by God. The theory asserts that what is moral is determin...
Divine command theory - Wikipedia
Deus deceptor
The evil demon, sometimes referred to as the evil genius, is a concept in Cartesian philosophy. In his 1641 Meditations on First Philosophy, René Descartes hypothesized the existence of an evil demon,...
Problem of evil in Hinduism
Hindu answers to the problem of evil are different from most answers offered in Western philosophy, partly because the problem of evil within Hindu thought is differently structured than Western tradi...
Dialogue of Pessimism
The Dialogue of Pessimism is an ancient Mesopotamian dialogue between a master and his servant that expresses the futility of human action. It has parallels with biblical wisdom literature.
The Di...
Mandate of Heaven
The Mandate of Heaven (Chinese: 天命; pinyin: tiānmìng) is an ancient Chinese belief and philosophical idea that Heaven granted emperors the right to rule based on their ability to govern well a...
Islamic ethics
Islamic ethics (أخلاق إسلامية), defined as "good character," historically took shape gradually from the 7th century and was finally established by the 11th century. It was eventually shaped as a succe...
Determinism
Determinism is the philosophical position that for every event, including human action, there exist conditions that could cause no other event. "There are many determinisms, depending upon what pre-co...
Determinism - Wikipedia
William of Ockham
William of Ockham (/ˈɒkəm/; also Occam; c. 1287 – 1347) was an English Franciscan friar and scholastic philosopher and theologian, who is believed to have been born in Ockham, a small village in Surre...
William of Ockham - Wikipedia
Paul van Buren
Paul Matthews van Buren (1924–1998) was a Christian theologian and author. An ordained Episcopalian priest he was a Professor of religion at Temple University, Philadelphia for 22 years. He was a Dire...
David Weiss Halivni
David Weiss Halivni (Hebrew: דוד וייס הלבני‎) (born 1927) is an American-Israeli rabbi, scholar in the domain of Jewish Sciences and professor of Talmud.
David Weiss was born in the smal...
David Weiss Halivni - Wikipedia
Omnibenevolence
Omnibenevolence (from Latin omni- meaning "all", and benevolent, meaning "good") is defined by the Oxford English Dictionary as "unlimited or infinite benevolence". Some philosophers have argued that ...
Misotheism
Misotheism is the "hatred of God" or "hatred of the gods" (from the Greek adjective μισόθεος "hating the gods", a compound of μῖσος "hatred" and θεός "god"). In some varieties of polytheism, it was co...
Divine providence
In theology, divine providence, or providence, is God's intervention in the world. "Divine Providence" (usually capitalized) is also used as a title of God. A distinction is usually made between "gene...
Divine providence - Wikipedia
Divine law
Divine law is any law that comes directly from the will of God, in contrast to man-made law. Like natural law (which may be seen as a manifestation of divine law) it is independent of the will of man,...
Irving Greenberg
Irving (Yitzchak) Greenberg (born 1933), also known as Yitz Greenberg, is a Modern Orthodox rabbi, Jewish-American scholar and author. He is known as a strong supporter of Israel and a promoter of gr...
Irving Greenberg - Wikipedia
Holocaust theology
Holocaust theology (from the Greek ὁλόκαυστος holókaustos: hólos, "whole" and kaustós, "burnt"), refers to a body of theological and philosophical debate concerning the role of God in the universe in...
Occasionalism
Occasionalism is a philosophical theory about causation which says that created substances cannot be efficient causes of events. Instead, all events are taken to be caused directly by God. (A related ...
Natural evil
Natural evil is evil for which “no non-divine agent can be held morally responsible for its occurrence.” By contrast, moral evil is “caused by human activity.” The fact of natural evil challenges, no...
Augustinian theodicy
The Augustinian theodicy, named for the fourth and fifth-century theologian and philosopher Augustine of Hippo, is a type of Christian theodicy designed in response to the evidential problem of evil. ...
Augustinian theodicy - Wikipedia
Emil Fackenheim
Emil Ludwig Fackenheim (22 June 1916 – 18 September 2003) was a noted Jewish philosopher and Reform rabbi.Born in Halle, Germany, he was arrested by Nazis on the night of 9 November 1938, known as Kri...
Steven Schwarzschild
Steven S. Schwarzschild (1924–1989) was a rabbi, philosopher, theologian, and editor.
Schwarzschild was born in Frankfurt am Main, Germany and grew up in Berlin. He escaped to the United States wi...
Steven Schwarzschild - Wikipedia
Théodicée
Essais de Théodicée sur la bonté de Dieu, la liberté de l'homme et l'origine du mal ("Essays of theodicy on the goodness of God, the freedom of man and the origin of evil"), more simply known as Théod...
Théodicée - Wikipedia
Irenaean theodicy
The Irenaean theodicy is a Christian theodicy designed to respond to the problem of evil. As such, it defends the probability of an omnipotent and omnibenevolent (all-powerful and perfectly loving) Go...
Irenaean theodicy - Wikipedia
Divine grace
Divine grace is a theological term present in many religions. It has been defined as the divine influence which operates in humans to regenerate and sanctify, to inspire virtuous impulses, and to impa...
Ludlul bēl nēmeqi
Ludlul bel nemeqi, I Will Praise the Lord of Wisdom, is a Mesopotamian poem (ANET, pp. 434–437) written in Akkadian that concerns itself with the problem of the unjust suffering of an afflicted m...
Problem of evil
In the philosophy of religion, the problem of evil is the question of how to reconcile the existence of evil with that of a deity who is, in either absolute or relative terms, omnipotent, omniscient, ...
Problem of evil - Wikipedia
Best of all possible worlds
The phrase "the best of all possible worlds" (French: le meilleur des mondes possibles; German: Die beste aller möglichen Welten) was coined by the German polymath Gottfried Leibniz in his 171...
Ten Commandments
The Ten Commandments, also known as the Decalogue, are a set of biblical principles relating to ethics and worship, which play a fundamental role in Judaism and Christianity. They include instructions...
Ten Commandments - Wikipedia
Alvin Plantinga's free will defense
Alvin Plantinga's version of the free will defense is an attempt to refute the logical problem of evil: the argument that the existence of an omnipotent, omniscient, omnibenevolent God in an evil worl...
Alvin Plantinga's free will defense - Wikipedia