Wittgenstein's Beetle and Other Classic Thought Experiments
Wittgenstein's Beetle is a book by Martin Cohen, perhaps better known for his popular introductions to philosophy, such as 101 Philosophy Problems. It was selected by The Guardian as one of its 'books...
Wittgenstein's Beetle and Other Classic Thought Experiments - Wikipedia
The Case of the Speluncean Explorers
The Case of the Speluncean Explorers is an article by legal philosopher Lon L. Fuller that was published in a 1949 issue of the Harvard Law Review. It presents a legal philosophy puzzle to the reader,...
The Case of the Speluncean Explorers - Wikipedia
Lifeboat ethics
Lifeboat ethics is a metaphor for resource distribution proposed by the ecologist Garrett Hardin in 1974.Hardin's metaphor describes a lifeboat bearing 50 people, with room for ten more. The lifeboat...
Cartesianism
Cartesianism is the name given to the philosophical doctrine (or school) of René Descartes. Descartes is often regarded as the first thinker to emphasize the use of reason to develop the natural scien...
Intuition pump
An intuition pump is a thought experiment structured to allow the thinker to use their intuition to develop an answer to a problem. The term was coined by Daniel Dennett. In Consciousness Explained, h...
Twin Earth thought experiment
Twin Earth is a thought experiment presented by philosopher Hilary Putnam in his 1973 paper "Meaning and Reference" and subsequent 1975 paper "The Meaning of 'Meaning'", as an early argument for what ...
China brain
In the philosophy of mind, the China brain thought experiment (also known as the Chinese Nation or Chinese Gym) considers what would happen if each member of the Chinese nation were asked to simulate ...
China brain - Wikipedia
Philosophical zombie
A philosophical zombie or p-zombie in the philosophy of mind and perception is a hypothetical being that is indistinguishable from a normal human being except in that it lacks conscious experience, qu...
Chinese room
The Chinese room is a thought experiment presented by John Searle to challenge the claim that it is possible for a computer running a program to have a "mind" and "consciousness" in the same sense tha...
Chinese room - Wikipedia
Rudolf Lingens
Rudolph Lingens is a fictional character often used by contemporary analytic philosophers as a placeholder name in a hypothetical scenario which illustrates some feature of the indexicality of natura...
Original position
The original position is a hypothetical situation developed by American philosopher John Rawls as a thought experiment to replace the imagery of a savage state of nature of prior political philosopher...
Utility monster
The utility monster is a thought experiment in the study of ethics created by philosopher Robert Nozick in 1974 as a criticism of utilitarianism.
A hypothetical being is proposed who receives much...
René Descartes
René Descartes (/ˈdeɪˌkɑrt/; [ʁəne dekaʁt]; Latinized: Renatus Cartesius; adjectival form: "Cartesian"; 31 March 1596 – 11 February 1650) was a French philosopher, mathematician and wri...
René Descartes - Wikipedia
Essence
In philosophy, essence is the attribute or set of attributes that make an entity or substance what it fundamentally is, and which it has by necessity, and without which it loses its identity. Essence ...
Plank of Carneades
In ethics, the plank of Carneades is a thought experiment first proposed by Carneades of Cyrene; it explores the concept of self-defense in relation to murder.In the thought experiment, there are two ...
Inverted spectrum
Inverted spectrum is the hypothetical concept of two people sharing their color vocabulary and discriminations, although the colors one sees — one's qualia — are systematically different f...
Buridan's ass
Buridan's ass is an illustration of a paradox in philosophy in the conception of free will.It refers to a hypothetical situation wherein an ass that is equally hungry and thirsty is placed precisely m...
Buridan's ass - Wikipedia
Living High and Letting Die
Living High and Letting Die: Our Illusion of Innocence ISBN 0-19-510859-0 is a philosophical book by Peter K. Unger, published in 1996. Inspired by Peter Singer's 1971 essay "Famine, Affluence, and Mo...
The survival lottery
The Survival Lottery is a thought experiment, proposed by the philosopher John Harris. The basis of the idea is to ask people to imagine if organ donation were expected to save more individuals than i...
Molyneux's problem
Molyneux's problem is a thought experiment in philosophy concerning immediate recovery from blindness.It was first formulated by William Molyneux, and notably referenced in John Locke's An Essay Conce...
Brain in a vat
In philosophy, the brain in a vat (alternately known as brain in a jar) is an element used in a variety of thought experiments intended to draw out certain features of our ideas of knowledge, reality,...
Swampman
Swampman is the subject of a philosophical thought experiment introduced by Donald Davidson in his 1987 paper "Knowing One's Own Mind". The experiment runs as follows:Davidson holds that there would n...
Balthasar Bekker
Balthasar Bekker (20 March 1634 – 11 June 1698) was a Dutch minister and author of philosophical and theological works. Opposing superstition, he was a key figure in the end of the witchcraft persecut...
Balthasar Bekker - Wikipedia
Lecherous millionaire
The lecherous millionaire is a thought experiment devised by Joel Feinberg to illustrate questions concerning coercion. It presents a scenario in which a millionaire offers to pay for medical care for...
Francine Descartes
Francine Descartes (19 July 1635, Deventer – 7 September 1640, Amersfoort) was René Descartes' daughter.Francine was the daughter of Helena Jans van der Strom, a domestic servant of Thomas Sergeant — ...