Intuition pump
An intuition pump is a thought experiment structured to allow the thinker to use their intuition to develop an answer to a problem. The term was coined by Daniel Dennett. In Consciousness Explained, h...
Twin Earth thought experiment
Twin Earth is a thought experiment presented by philosopher Hilary Putnam in his 1973 paper "Meaning and Reference" and subsequent 1975 paper "The Meaning of 'Meaning'", as an early argument for what ...
China brain
In the philosophy of mind, the China brain thought experiment (also known as the Chinese Nation or Chinese Gym) considers what would happen if each member of the Chinese nation were asked to simulate ...
China brain - Wikipedia
Chinese room
The Chinese room is a thought experiment presented by John Searle to challenge the claim that it is possible for a computer running a program to have a "mind" and "consciousness" in the same sense tha...
Chinese room - Wikipedia
Swampman
Swampman is the subject of a philosophical thought experiment introduced by Donald Davidson in his 1987 paper "Knowing One's Own Mind". The experiment runs as follows:Davidson holds that there would n...
Hard problem of consciousness
The hard problem of consciousness is the problem of explaining how and why we have qualia or phenomenal experiences — how sensations acquire characteristics, such as colours and tastes. David ...
Hard problem of consciousness - Wikipedia
Brain in a vat
In philosophy, the brain in a vat (alternately known as brain in a jar) is an element used in a variety of thought experiments intended to draw out certain features of our ideas of knowledge, reality,...
Philosophical zombie
A philosophical zombie or p-zombie in the philosophy of mind and perception is a hypothetical being that is indistinguishable from a normal human being except in that it lacks conscious experience, qu...
Mary's room
The knowledge argument (also known as Mary's room or Mary the super-scientist) is a philosophical thought experiment proposed by Frank Jackson in his article "Epiphenomenal Qualia" (1982) and extend...
If a tree falls in a forest
"If a tree falls in a forest and no one is around to hear it, does it make a sound?" is a philosophical thought experiment that raises questions regarding observation and knowledge of reality.
Phi...
If a tree falls in a forest - Wikipedia
Qualia
Qualia (/ˈkwɑːliə/ or /ˈkweɪliə/; singular form: quale) is a term used in philosophy to refer to individual instances of subjective, conscious experience. The term derives from the Latin adverb quālis...
Brainstorm machine
In the philosophy of mind, the Brainstorm machine is a thought experiment described by Daniel Dennett, to show that it is not possible to intersubjectively compare any two individuals' personal experi...
George Berkeley
George Berkeley (/ˈbɑrkleɪ/ or /ˈbɑrklɪ/; 12 March 1685 – 14 January 1753), also known as Bishop Berkeley (Bishop of Cloyne), was an Anglo-Irish philosopher whose primary achievement wa...
George Berkeley - Wikipedia
Observer-expectancy effect
The observer-expectancy effect (also called the experimenter-expectancy effect, expectancy bias, observer effect, or experimenter effect) is a form of reactivity in which a researcher's cognitive bias...
Blockhead (computer system)
Blockhead is the name of a theoretical computer system invented as part of a thought experiment by philosopher Ned Block, which appeared in a paper entitled Psychologism and Behaviorism (though Block ...